TABLE 2

NNNS Summary Scores of Morphine-Treated Versus Clonidine-Treated Newborns During the First and Second Assessments

Behavior Scales (Summary Items)NNNS Time 1NNNS Time 2Time 1 Versus Time 2Time 1 Versus Time 2
Morphine (n = 15)Clonidine (n = 16)P: Morphine Versus ClonidineMorphine (n = 13)Clonidine (n = 14)P: Morphine Versus ClonidineP: MorphineP: Clonidine
Attention5.06 ± 0.274.51 ± 0.263.155.20 ± 0.275.39 ± 0.26.61.63.004
Handling0.36 ± 0.060.42 ± 0.06.440.34 ± 0.060.18 ± 0.06.07.79.004
Quality of movement4.77 ± 0.154.92 ± 0.14.454.58 ± 0.164.94 ± 0.15.10.30.90
Regulation5.2 ± 0.185.26 ± 0.17.665.05 ± 0.195.56 ± 0.18.06.63.14
Nonoptimal reflexes3.73 ± 0.424.13 ± 0.40.504.15 ± 0.443.55 ± 0.43.33.56.41
Asymmetric reflexes0.20 ± 0.140.00 ± 0.14.310.46 ± 0.150.07± 0.15.07.23.73
Stress/abstinence0.07 ± 0.010.08 ± 0.01.790.08 ± 0.010.05 ± 0.01.13.78.09
Arousal3.91 ± 0.133.95 ± 0.13.824.02 ± 0.153.54 ± 0.14.02.57.04
Hypertonicity0.40 ± 0.250.25 ± 0.24.670.77 ± 0.270.07 ± 0.26.06.31.63
Hypotonicity0.13 ± 0.130.19 ± 0.13.770.23 ± 0.140.37 ± 0.13.46.58.26
Excitability2.6 ± 0.532.38 ± 0.51.762.94 ± 0.560.84 ± 0.54.009.59.02
Lethargy3.6 ± 0.505.13 ± 0.49.032.65 ± 0.543.70 ± 0.52.17.17.04
  • Data are presented as mean ± SE.