Table 4.

Mean Cumulative Percent of Days With Middle-ear Effusion During Second Year of Life According to Study Site Grouping and Selected Sociodemographic Characteristics

CharacteristicStudy Site GroupingPValue*
UrbanSmall-Town/RuralSuburbanTotal
Mean Cumulative Percent of Days With Middle-ear Effusion (No. of Subjects)
Sex
 Male21.5 (307)16.8 (507)15.2 (366)17.5 (1180)<.001
 Female20.0 (327)14.3 (444)12.4 (302)15.5 (1073)
Race
 White20.7 (166)15.7 (928)13.9 (664)15.5 (1758)<.001
 Black20.7 (438)11.2 (17)26.8 (4)20.4 (459)
 Other/uncertain22.7 (30)18.1 (6)21.9 (36)
Birth weight, lb
 ≥5, <618.2 (65)15.1 (46)15.2 (42)16.4 (153).23
 ≥6, <721.7 (213)16.4 (180)13.5 (123)17.9 (516)
 ≥7, <819.1 (222)16.1 (373)12.3 (230)15.8 (825)
 ≥8, <924.1 (100)14.5 (249)14.8 (186)16.4 (535)
 ≥920.8 (34)15.2 (103)16.4 (87)16.5 (224)
Maternal age, y
 ≥18, <2022.3 (104)15.2 (50)13.8 (3)19.9 (157)<.001
 20–2419.4 (270)16.5 (270)15.2 (43)17.7 (583)
 25–2921.9 (164)15.1 (323)12.4 (217)15.9 (704)
 30–3423.1 (65)15.7 (225)14.5 (278)16.0 (568)
 ≥3517.4 (31)14.4 (83)14.9 (127)15.1 (241)
Season of birth
 Winter19.8 (126)14.6 (254)14.1 (127)15.8 (507).40
 Spring19.1 (164)15.4 (215)13.4 (175)15.9 (554)
 Summer23.2 (186)15.5 (237)14.2 (207)17.3 (630)
 Fall20.4 (158)16.9 (245)14.0 (159)17.1 (562)
Maternal education
 <High school20.5 (118)20.7 (53)16.0 (6)20.4 (177)<.001
 High school20.5 (256)15.6 (425)13.9 (173)16.8 (854)
 Technical/associate21.3 (238)15.5 (335)13.4 (238)16.6 (811)
 College graduate19.0 (19)12.5 (116)14.4 (178)14.0 (313)
 Postgraduate18.0 (3)19.5 (22)14.5 (73)15.7 (98)
Health insurance status
 Private16.6 (35)14.9 (614)13.5 (640)14.3 (1289)<.001
 Medicaid21.1 (590)16.8 (322)24.2 (18)19.7 (930)
 None16.3 (9)17.8 (15)21.5 (10)18.5 (34)
Socioeconomic index
 Medicaid <high School21.0 (115)23.1 (37)6.8 (1)21.4 (153)<.001
 Medicaid <high School21.1 (475)16.0 (285)25.2 (17)19.3 (777)
 Private insurance <college15.6 (31)15.3 (487)13.1 (391)14.4 (909)
 Private insurance ≥college24.7 (4)13.2 (127)14.2 (249)14.0 (380)
Not breastfed at 2 mo§21.1 (568)16.0 (669)13.9 (392)17.3 (1629)<.001
Breastfed until 2 mo28.4 (14)13.8 (64)13.1 (59)15.0 (137)
 4 mo18.1 (10)13.9 (56)15.7 (55)15.1 (121)
 6 mo19.6 (10)18.8 (38)14.9 (35)17.2 (83)
 8 mo14.5 (19)14.5 (66)13.3 (71)13.9 (156)
 ≥12 mo9.6 (13)14.2 (58)13.3 (56)13.3 (127)
No. of smokers in household
 020.2 (287)14.9 (602)14.1 (504)15.7 (1393)<.001
 120.6 (222)16.6 (229)13.7 (116)17.6 (567)
 222.0 (97)17.5 (101)12.5 (46)18.4 (244)
 ≥323.3 (26)11.9 (10)6.7 (2)19.4 (38)
No. of other children in household
 019.3 (247)11.9 (391)11.5 (248)13.9 (886)<.001
 120.5 (210)18.6 (346)14.2 (264)17.7 (820)
 221.2 (118)18.1 (162)17.1 (118)18.7 (398)
 330.9 (39)16.2 (38)15.6 (31)21.3 (108)
 ≥420.6 (19)13.7 (14)26.4 (7)19.2 (40)
Day care mode second year of life
 None19.6 (498)15.1 (685)13.1 (490)15.8 (1673)
 Day care with no other children17.2 (17)10.2 (72)12.0 (28)11.6 (117)<.001
  <5 other children24.7 (61)17.8 (138)14.2 (88)18.2 (287)
  ≥5 other children28.0 (58)23.6 (56)21.2 (62)24.2 (176)
 Child exposure index second year of life
  None17.7 (187)9.9 (298)9.8 (180)12.1 (665)<.001
  Intermediate#21.2 (388)17.7 (597)14.6 (426)17.7 (1411)
  High**28.0 (58)23.6 (56)21.2 (62)24.2 (176)
  • * For the total population, comparison, regarding the mean cumulative percent of time with MEE, between categories or levels of the sociodemographic characteristic.

  • Test for linear trend.

  • Consists of health insurance status as the primary element and maternal education as the secondary element. Not included are 9 urban, 15 small-town/rural, and 10 suburban infants who have no health insurance.

  • § Information not consistently available for period before age 2 months.

  • Modal (most commonly occurring) circumstance; see Methods for details. Test for linear trend was applied only to infants in day care.

  • At home with no other children or in day care with no other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.

  • # At home with ≥1 other child or in day care with <5 other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.

  • ** In day care with ≥5 other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.