Table 3.

Mean Cumulative Percent of Days With Middle-ear Effusion During First Year of Life* According to Study Site Grouping and Selected Sociodemographic Characteristics

CharacteristicStudy Site GroupingPValue
UrbanSmall-Town/RuralSuburbanTotal
Mean Cumulative Percent of Days With Middle-ear Effusion (No. of Subjects)
Sex
 Male27.7 (307)20.6 (507)15.9 (366)21.0 (1180).08
 Female27.7 (327)17.1 (444)14.8 (302)19.7 (1073)
Race
 White24.4 (166)19.0 (928)15.4 (664)18.2 (1758)<.001
 Black29.0 (438)20.7 (17)10.2 (4)28.5 (459)
 Other/uncertain26.9 (30)9.4 (6)23.9 (36)
Birth weight, lb
 ≥5, <624.2 (65)19.5 (46)17.5 (42)20.9 (153)<.001
 ≥6, <729.2 (213)19.2 (180)13.5 (123)22.0 (516)
 ≥7, <826.2 (222)19.6 (373)15.3 (230)20.2 (825)
 ≥8, <931.0 (100)18.3 (249)15.8 (186)19.8 (535)
 ≥925.1 (34)18.0 (103)16.4 (87)18.4 (224)
Maternal age, y
 ≥18, <2030.8 (104)20.1 (50)23.5 (3)27.2 (157)<.001
 20–2426.8 (270)18.5 (270)15.7 (43)22.1 (583)
 25–2928.8 (164)19.2 (323)13.3 (217)19.6 (704)
 30–3426.7 (65)19.7 (225)16.1 (278)18.7 (568)
 ≥3521.5 (31)17.3 (83)17.2 (127)17.8 (241)
Season of birth
 Winter25.6 (126)16.5 (254)15.4 (127)18.5 (507)<.01
 Spring27.0 (164)20.8 (215)15.7 (175)21.0 (554)
 Summer30.9 (186)19.8 (237)16.8 (207)22.1 (630)
 Fall26.2 (158)19.2 (245)13.2 (159)19.5 (562)
Maternal education
 <High school30.7 (118)27.2 (53)12.1 (6)29.0 (177)<.001
 High school28.2 (256)20.1 (425)16.8 (173)21.8 (854)
 Technical/associate26.5 (238)16.9 (335)14.4 (238)19.0 (811)
 College graduate18.3 (19)17.0 (116)15.6 (178)16.3 (313)
 Postgraduate19.2 (3)20.4 (22)15.3 (73)16.6 (98)
Health insurance status
 Private20.0 (35)17.7 (614)15.3 (640)16.6 (1289)<.001
 Medicaid28.3 (590)21.6 (322)18.5 (18)25.8 (930)
 None16.0 (9)15.1 (15)14.6 (10)15.2 (34)
Socioeconomic index§
 Medicaid <high school30.8 (115)27.6 (37)23.3 (1)30.0 (153)<.001
 Medicaid ≥high school27.7 (475)20.8 (285)18.2 (17)25.0 (777)
 Private insurance <college20.8 (31)17.8 (487)15.3 (391)16.8 (909)
 Private insurance ≥college14.3 (4)17.4 (127)15.3 (249)16.0 (380)
Not breastfed at 2 mo28.0 (568)19.7 (669)16.0 (392)21.7 (1629)<.001
Breastfed until 2 mo34.0 (14)19.2 (64)17.0 (59)19.8 (137)
 4 mo23.6 (10)17.1 (56)17.1 (55)17.6 (121)
 6 mo31.6 (10)16.7 (38)12.6 (35)16.8 (83)
 8 mo19.5 (19)16.2 (66)11.6 (71)14.5 (156)
 ≥12 mo18.6 (13)17.6 (58)14.3 (56)16.2 (127)
No. of smokers in household
 026.6 (287)17.6 (602)14.8 (504)18.4 (1393)<.001
 127.5 (222)20.8 (229)17.5 (116)22.8 (567)
 231.2 (97)22.8 (101)16.6 (46)25.0 (244)
 ≥329.2 (26)17.0 (10)7.5 (2)24.8 (38)
No. of other children in household
 022.3 (247)13.7 (391)11.9 (248)15.6 (886)<.001
 129.1 (210)21.2 (346)16.0 (264)21.6 (820)
 231.9 (118)24.8 (162)19.1 (118)25.2 (398)
 340.0 (39)25.3 (38)22.0 (31)29.7 (108)
 ≥429.9 (19)27.0 (14)24.3 (7)27.9 (40)
Day care mode first year of life
 None27.4 (554)18.8 (728)13.8 (478)20.2 (1760)
 Day care with
  no other children19.9 (6)12.8 (59)11.7 (41)12.8 (106)<.001
  <5 other children26.4 (40)19.3 (133)17.7 (95)19.8 (268)
  ≥5 other children34.5 (34)33.1 (31)27.9 (54)31.1 (119)
 Child exposure index first year of life
  None#22.2 (213)12.4 (319)9.6 (180)14.6 (712)<.001
  Intermediate**30.1 (386)21.7 (601)16.2 (434)22.3 (1421)
  High3-16434.5 (34)33.1 (31)27.9 (54)31.1 (119)
  • * First year of life denotes age period 2 to 12 months.

  • For the total population, comparison, regarding the mean cumulative percent of time with MEE, between categories or levels of the sociodemographic characteristic.

  • Test for linear trend.

  • § Consists of health insurance status as the primary element and maternal education as the secondary element. Not included are 9 urban, 15 small-town/rural, and 10 suburban infants who have no health insurance.

  • Information not consistently available for period before age 2 months.

  • Modal (most commonly occurring) circumstance; see Methods for details. Test for linear trend was applied only to infants in day care.

  • # At home with no other children or in day care with no other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.

  • ** At home with ≥1 other child or in day care with <5 other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.

  • F3-164 In day care with ≥5 other children, irrespective of no. of hours per week.