TABLE 1

Nondietary Factors and Risk of CDA (Primary End Point) and CD (Secondary End Point)

Median (range) age at end point, yCDA (n = 773)CD (n = 307)
3.0 (0.9–7.5)3.8 (1.2–8.8)
n (%)aHR (95% CI)bPn (%)aHR (95% CI)bP
Country
 United States228 (9)193 (4)1
 Sweden333 (16)1.74 (1.47–2.06)<.0001151 (7)1.73 (1.34–2.24)<.0001
 Finland171 (12)1.22 (1.00– 1.49).0552 (4)0.84 (0.60–1.18).31
 Germany41 (11)1.21 (0.87–1.69).2611 (3)0.75 (0.40–1.40).37
Gender
 Boys317 (10)1107 (3)1
 Girls456 (14)1.55 (1.34–1.79)<.0001200 (6)2.02 (1.59–2.55)<.0001
HLA genotype
 TEDDY otherc430 (8)1146 (3)1
 DR3-DQ2/DR3-DQ2343 (26)3.56 (3.09–4.11)<.0001161 (12)4.58 (3.66–5.74)<.0001
First degree relative with celiac disease
 No732 (12)1282 (4)1
 Yes41 (28)2.60 (1.90–3.57)<.000125 (17)3.83 (2.55–5.77)<.0001
Season of birth
 Winter (December – February)185 (11)163 (4)1
 Spring (March – May)212 (14)1.18 (0.97–1.44).1095 (6)1.55 (1.13–2.13).007
 Summer (June – August)194 (12)1.06 (0.87–1.30).5575 (5)1.19 (0.85–1.68).30
 Fall (September – November)182 (11)1.03 (0.84–1.26).7774 (5)1.16 (0.83–1.63).38
Maternal smoking during pregnancy
 No710 (12)1275 (5)1
 Yes63 (10)0.85 (0.65–1.09).2028 (5)0.98 (0.67–1.45).92
Maternal education
 Basic primary129 (11)0.89 (0.74–1.08).2554 (5)0.94 (0.70–1.27).70
 Higher education640 (12)1253 (5)1
Maternal age at delivery, y
 Mean ± SD30.9 ± 4.71.0 (0.98–1.01).8530.8 ± 4.51.0 (0.97–1.02).75
  • a Proportion of exposed children with CDA or CD in each category.

  • b Unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

  • c DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 (39%), DR4-DQ8/DR4-DQ8 (20%), DR4-DQ8/DR8-DQ8 (17%), types only applicable on subjects with family history of T1DM (3%).