TABLE 1

Baseline CHC and Participant Characteristics

CharacteristicTotal (8 CHCs, 336 mothers)WE CARE (4 CHCs, 168 mothers)Control (4 CHCs, 168 mothers)
CHC level
 Patients <1 y of age, no.a1574981593
 Pediatric clinicians, no.372116
 Low-income population, %656267
Participant level
 Maternal age, mean (SD), yr28.3 (6.1)28.1 (6.2)28.6 (6.0)
 Infant age, mean (SD), mo2.5 (2.1)2.5 (2.0)2.6 (2.1)
 Maternal race and ethnicity, no. (%)b
  Hispanic77 (23)43 (26)34 (20)
  Non-Hispanic white77 (24)25 (15)52 (32)
  Non-Hispanic black143 (44)80 (49)63 (39)
  Non-Hispanic Asian8 (2)1 (<1)7 (4)
  Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian2 (<1)1 (<1)1 (<1)
  Non-Hispanic >1 race16 (4)12 (7)4 (3)
  Unknown or not reported13 (4)6 (4)7 (4)
 Maternal birth in the U.S., No. (%)200 (60)100 (60)100 (60)
 Maternal education, no. (%)b
  Less than high school54 (17)26 (16)28 (18)
  High school graduate105 (31)52 (32)53 (33)
  Some college87 (26)43 (27)44 (28)
  College degree75 (22)40 (25)35 (22)
 Married, no. (%)89 (27)46 (28)43 (27)
 Household income, no. (%)b
  <$40 000260 (79)134 (81)126 (75)
  ≥$40 00072 (22)32 (19)40 (24)
 Children in household, mean (SD)2.1 (1.3)2.0 (1.2)2.2 (1.3)
 Maternal depression, no. (%)c34 (11)21 (14)13 (8)
 Child’s insurance coverage, no. (%)b
  Medicaid261 (81)136 (84)125 (78)
  Private insurance23 (7)7 (4)16 (10)
  Other or self-pay39 (12)19 (12)20 (12)
 Public benefits, no. (%)
  TANF86 (27)44 (27)42 (26)
  SNAP176 (54)90 (56)86 (53)
  WIC265 (81)138 (84)127 (78)
  Section 8 voucher42 (13)26 (16)16 (10)
  Child care voucher30 (9)16 (10)14 (8)
  • SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; TANF, Temporary Assistance for Needy Children; WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

  • a Data are from the 2009 Boston HealthNet database and represent 6 CHCs; data from 2 CHCs (1 intervention and 1 control) were not available.

  • b Percentages may not add up to 100 because of rounding.

  • c Personal Health Questionnaire Depression score ≥10.