TABLE 2

Background Characteristics of Age at Introduction to Gluten and Breastfeeding Duration, by Country

VariableUnited States (n = 2542)Finland (n = 1472)Germany (n = 380)Sweden (n = 2042)
n (%)Mean ± SDMedian (Q1, Q3)n (%)Mean ± SDMedian (Q1, Q3)n (%)Mean ± SDMedian (Q1, Q3)n (%)Mean ± SDMedian (Q1, Q3)
Time to gluten introduction, wk 254230.1 ± 8.430.4 (26.1, 34.9)147227.8 ± 8.126.1 (23.9, 30.4)38032.8 ± 10.430.4 (26.1, 37.0)204221.6 ± 4.521.7 (17.4, 23.9)
Category of age at gluten introduction
 Early (<17 wk)a98 (4)11.6 ± 3.913.0 (11.0, 14.0)47 (3)7.8 ± 4.17.0 (4.3, 10.0)18 (5)14.5 ± 1.914.0 (14.0, 16.0)233 (11)15.0 ± 1.615.3 (14.0, 16.0)
 Reference (17–26 wk)a447 (18)21.0 ± 2.221.7 (19.6, 21.7)463 (32)22.1 ± 1.821.7 (21.7, 23.9)53 (14)22.0 ± 1.921.7 (19.6, 23.9)1330 (65)20.6 ± 2.321.7 (18.0, 21.7)
 Late (>26 wk)a1997 (78)33.0 ± 6.630.4 (26.1, 34.9)962 (65)31.5 ± 6.730.4 (26.1, 34.9)309 (81)35.7 ± 9.232.6 (29.3, 39.1)479 (24)27.7 ± 2.926.1 (26.1, 28.3)
Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, wkb25425.4 ± 8.31.0 (0.07, 8.0)14727.2 ± 8.63.0 (0.07, 13.0)38010.1 ± 11.14.0 (0.07, 21.7)20427.5 ± 7.84.0 (0.07, 16.0)
Duration of any breastfeeding, wkb254238.4 ± 34.034.6 (10.0, 56.6)147239.4 ± 24.739.1 (21.7, 54.6)38036.5 ± 27.234.7 (14.1, 49.3)204232.7 ± 22.731.9 (17.4, 43.4)
  • a Mean ± SD and median (Q1,Q3) are presented for each category of age at gluten introduction

  • b Children who were not breastfed were assigned a duration of 0. A total of 124 children in the United States, 0 children in Finland, 7 children in Germany, and 9 children in Sweden were not breastfed