Screening Results of Children in Pediatric Primary Care12a

Totals, n (%)
Tier 1 universal screening: total screened796 (100)
Lost to follow-up (incomplete screens)60 (8)
Children who had negative screens544 (68)
Children who had positive screens (advanced to tier 2)192 (24)
Lost to follow-upScreening decision: autism evaluationScreening decision: no autism evaluationTotalsb
Tier 2 at-risk follow-up
 M-CHAT with follow-up interview38 (5)19 (2)68 (8)125 (16)
 ITC with follow-up to confirm40 (5)45 (6)58 (7)143 (18)
Negative initial screens, but parent or provider concern5 (<1)5 (<1)
Children who had positive screen or concern69 (8)
Less: children positive on both screeners−17 (2)
Children invited for in-person evaluation (advanced to tier 3)52 (6)
Lost to follow-upEvaluatedExcluded by age matchTotals
Tier 3: indicated evaluations21 (2)31 (4)52 (6)
Group assignments: autism groupa14 (2)14 (2)
Language groupc16 (2)2 (<1)14 (2)
Typical group1 (<1)
Plus: controls recruited (negative screening and evaluation results)+1314 (n/a)
  • ITC, Infant Toddler Checklist from the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales14; M-CHAT, Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers13; n/a, not applicable to the total of 796 originally screened owing to addition of recruited controls.

  • a These data include children who completed evaluations after publication of Miller et al 2011.

  • b Totals are separated by screener, and some children screened positive on both, so total exceeds 192.

  • c A total of 16 children were in this group, with 2 excluded owing to lack of age match with Autism group.