Psychosocial Variables Tested as Correlates of E-Cigarette Use in a Sample of High School Students in Hawaii

Variable (Items)αSample ItemCorrelation of Scale With
Smoking FrequencyAlcohol FrequencyMarijuana Frequency
Social-cognitive risk factors
 Smoker prototypes (4)a.80The type of person your age who smokes is [popular]..18.14.16
 Smoking expectancies (5)b.95Smoking helps you feel more [self-confident]..39.31.32
 Behavioral dysregulation (15)b.84I often do things without stopping to think..18.23.19
 Emotional dysregulation (14)b.87My moods change a lot from day to day..20.24.19
 Peer smoking (1)cnaDo any of your friends smoke cigarettes?.38.38.37
Social-cognitive protective factors
 Parental support (5)b.94When I feel bad about something, my parent will listen.−.18−.19−.14
 Parental monitoring (5)b.75My parent asks me what I do with my friends.−.18−.21−.18
 Academic competence (5)b.79I like school because I do well in class.−.21−.22−.18
 Grades past year (1)dnaOverall, what were your grades like the past year?−.22−.14−.22
 Behavioral self-control (18)b.89I like to plan things ahead of time.−.21−.26−.22
 Emotional self-control (13)b.90When I’m upset, I can stop myself from losing my temper.−.14−.19−.16
 Social competence (5)b.80I find it easy to make friends with other teenagers..01#.03#.04#
Problem behavior risk factors
 Parent–adolescent conflict (3)b.83I have a lot of arguments with my parent..17.18.17
 Sensation seeking (5)b.75I like to do things that are a little frightening..29.35.28
 Rebelliousness (4)b.85I like to break the rules..36.42.40
  • na, not applicable. N for correlations = ~1910. Correlations are significant at P < .001 unless otherwise noted. #, indicates not significant.

  • a Response = 1–5 adjective scale (Not at allVery).

  • b Response = 1–5 Likert scale (Not at all trueVery true).

  • c Response = 0–4 count scale (None of my friends4 or more of my friends).

  • d Response = 1–5 categorical scale (1 = mostly F to 5 = mostly A).