TABLE 1

Characteristics of Cases of Out-of-Hospital Medication Errors by Child Age, NPDS 2002–2012

CharacteristicsAge, yTotal
<112345<6a
Gender
 Boys95 26276 43266 51653 61845 66238 653828376 971 (54.2)
 Girls79 26667 12059 08046 02137 06928 979677318 212 (45.8)
 Unknown/Missingb771272211143108621871754
Formulation
 Liquid160 689128 384100 53975 34358 31942 7021301567 277 (81.9)
 Solid (tablets/capsules/caplets)707210 52920 89420 77021 48522 403284103 437 (14.9)
 Cream/lotion /gel358718221310934732656469087 (1.3)
 Aerosol/mist/spray/gas1318808802840795814195396 (0.8)
 Powder/granules662540417339306257132534 (0.4)
 Patch1916232019130110 (0.0)
 Other8758651067891683449164846 (0.7)
 Unknown/Missingb1077860755645500400134250
Acuity/chronicity
 Acute140 272120 158105 12182 32667 19153 7321344570 144 (81.9)
 Acute-on-chronic27 27819 86717 82315 25513 91212 471250106 856 (15.4)
 Chronic7503362726992090163014248619 059 (2.7)
 Unknown/Missingb2461721641111066712878
Exposure site
 Own residence170 061139 515122 17096 80379 93264 8691628674 978 (96.9)
 Other residence4158348730082484233220154017 524 (2.5)
 School66751432828234662062763 (0.4)
 Other30923824016619414221291 (0.2)
 Unknown/Missingb104706147354816381
Management site
 Managed on site at non-HCF158 191136 019119 28594 40277 74762 6591521649 824 (93.5)
 Patient already in / en route to HCF10 315426433252677250825229125 702 (3.7)
 Referred by PCC to a HCF5205245622561949187619213115 694 (2.3)
 Other1101783641531504445174022 (0.6)
 Unknown/Missingb487302300223204147321695
Level of health care received
 No HCF treatment received159 778137 104120 22695 15678 45563 2511570655 540 (94.1)
 Treated/evaluated and released11 482510041163391315832547530 576 (4.4)
 Lost to follow-up/against medical advice1592697644475467426284329 (0.6)
 Admitted to noncritical care unit109540029531432132952759 (0.4)
 Admitted to critical care unit80124622820521020361899 (0.3)
 Refused referral/didn’t arrive at HCF54427529724122623081821 (0.3)
 Other721021013 (0.0)
Medical outcome
 Not followed, minimal clinical effectsc76 02470 17964 08451 41143 24035 078714340 730 (48.9)
 Not followed, nontoxic exposured47 73837 06029 94722 58017 77013 549609169 253 (24.3)
 No effect38 76128 10223 64618 82715 57713 163259138 335 (19.8)
 Minor effect9616701865795689488145616238 406 (5.5)
 Unable to follow e1590837886656657620455291 (0.8)
 Moderate effect141757161258667768334549 (0.7)
 Major effect14255492934390348 (0.0)
 Death1124431025 (0.0)
Total175 299143 824125 80799 78282 83967 6941692696 937
  • a <6 = Exact age unknown, but ≤5 y old.

  • b Not included in percentage calculations.

  • c Not followed, minimal clinical effects possible (no more than minor effect possible).

  • d Not followed, judged as nontoxic exposure (clinical effects not expected).

  • e Unable to follow, judged as a potentially toxic exposure.