TABLE 1

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Children Experiencing at Least 1 ED Visit Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011

Overall (n = 1 896 547)No. of ED Visits Within a 365-Day Period
1 (n = 1 183 571)2 (n = 396 690)3 (n = 163 080)≥4 (n = 153 206)
Chronic conditiona, n (%)
 None1 415 385 (74.6)969 654 (81.9)277 951 (70.1)97 923 (60.0)69 857 (45.6)
 Non-CCCb368 866 (19.4)170 620 (14.4)92 364 (23.3)48 950 (30.0)56 932 (37.2)
 CCCc112 296 (5.9)43 297 (3.7)26 375 (6.6)16 207 (9.9)26 417 (17.2)
Age, n (%)
 <1 year300 665 (15.9)143 194 (12.1)68 816 (17.3)37 762 (23.2)50 893 (33.2)
 1–4 years642 217 (33.9)384 979 (32.5)144 180 (36.3)60 300 (37.0)52 758 (34.4)
 5–9 years428 577 (22.6)290 740 (24.6)85 546 (21.6)30 328 (18.6)21 963 (14.3)
 10–14 years318 471 (16.8)219 775 (18.6)60 957 (15.4)21 443 (13.1)16 296 (10.6)
 ≥15 years206 617 (10.9)144 883 (12.2)37 191 (9.4)13 247 (8.1)11 296 (7.4)
Female gender, n (%)893 024 (47.1)558 489 (47.2)186 382 (47.0)76 384 (46.8)71 769 (46.9)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 Non-Hispanic white774 095 (40.8)526 980 (44.5)146 035 (36.8)53 873 (33.0)47 207 (30.8)
 Non-Hispanic black527 776 (27.8)291 953 (24.7)123 159 (31.0)56 052 (34.4)56 612 (37.0)
 Hispanic411 090 (21.7)244 069 (20.6)91 706 (23.1)38 905 (23.9)36 410 (23.8)
 Asian34 171 (1.8)24 085 (2.0)6218 (1.6)2230 (1.4)1638 (1.1)
 Other149 415 (7.9)96 484 (8.2)29 572 (7.5)12 020 (7.4)11 339 (7.4)
Public insurance, n (%)1 101 297 (58.1)622 245 (52.6)250 532 (63.2)113 262 (69.5)115 258 (75.2)
Rural (versus nonrural) , n (%)85 656 (4.5)65 220 (5.5)12 626 (3.2)4210 (2.6)3600 (2.3)
Distance from hospitald, median (IQR), miles8.6 (4.6–16.1)9.6 (5.1–18)7.6 (4.2–14)7.1 (3.9–12.9)6.8 (3.7–12.3)
Primary care physician densitye, n (%)
 Lowest quartile (<57.2)373 126 (19.7)244 625 (20.7)74 396 (18.8)28 770 (17.6)25 335 (16.5)
 Second quartile (57.2–67.9)526 469 (27.8)332 948 (28.1)109 207 (27.5)44 122 (27.1)40 192 (26.2)
 Third quartile (68.0–78.7)453 965 (23.9)272 174 (23.0)97 392 (24.6)42 038 (25.8)42 361 (27.6)
 Highest quartile (≥78.8)532 896 (28.1)325 931 (27.5)114 390 (28.8)47 727 (29.3)44 848 (29.3)
  • a Diagnoses reported during all ED encounters were used to categorize patients by chronic condition.

  • b These children had a chronic condition, identified with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Chronic Condition Indicator system but did not have a CCC, identified with Feudtner’s diagnosis list.

  • c These children had a CCC identified with Feudtner’s diagnosis list.23

  • d Calculated with the 5-digit zip code of residence in relation to hospital address.

  • e Primary care physician density is the number of primary care physicians per 100 000 residents based on zip code of residence.