TABLE 1

Demographic and Baseline Characteristics

Children (N = 260)
    Age, mean ± SD, y6.2 ± 2.4
    Gender, %
        Male50
        Female50
    White, %76
    Temperament (EASI) score, mean ± SD
        Emotionality11.8 ± 4.4
        Activity15.1 ± 4.0
        Sociability18.2 ± 3.0
        Impulsivity12.3 ± 3.8
    Preoperative distress (mYPAS) score, mean ± SD
        Holding35.2 ± 15.2
        Separation39.7 ± 20.8
        Entrance to induction area42.2 ± 21.1
        Introduction of mask46.9 ± 24.3
Parents
    Income, range, $51 000–80 000
    Years of education, mean ± SD14.9 ± 2.6
    Coping style (MBSS) score, mean ± SD
        Blunting4.1 ± 2.8
        Monitoring7.9 ± 3.3
        Total (monitoring and blunting)4.9 ± 3.4
    Trait anxiety (STAI) score, mean ± SD39.8 ± 6.6
    State anxiety (STAI) score, mean ± SD
        Holding43.8 ± 11.0
        Separation46.6 ± 11.7