TABLE 1

Parenting Style Distribution (N = 5665)

Parenting StyleControlSupportProportion of Sample, %
AuthoritarianaHighLow8
AuthoritativebHighHigh50
PermissivecLowHigh23
UninvolveddLowLow19
  • To be categorized as having parents with high levels of control, respondents needed to provide agree or strongly agree responses for all 3 rules and monitoring items. Similarly, to be categorized as having parents who gave high levels of support, respondents needed to provide agree or strongly agree responses for the parental support item. All other responses were categorized as low.

  • a In lay language, authoritarian parents might say, “You'll do as I say.”

  • b In lay language, authoritative parents might say, “I care about you, and I'll give you the freedoms you earn, but for safety-related issues you'll need to do as I say.”

  • c In lay language, permissive parents might say, “I trust you; you'll do the right thing.”

  • d In lay language, uninvolved parents might say, “Do what you want.”