Odds of Having Each MFS by Bottle-Feeding Practices During the First 6 Months

Bottle-Feeding Practices During the First 6 moaMFS at 6 y old
Pressure to EatFood Restriction
Encourage My Child to Eat All of the Food on the PlateEspecially Careful to Make Sure My Child Eats EnoughMake Sure My Child Doesn’t Eat Too Many Sweets or Junk FoodsIf I Didn’t Guide/Regulate, My Child Would Eat Too Much of His/Her Favorite Foods
Bottle feeding intensity (BFI)
 Low (0%–50%)RefRefRefRef
 High (51%–100%)1.36 (0.95–1.95)1.73 (1.26–2.39)*0.91 (0.68–1.21)0.96 (0.71–1.30)
Bottle emptying encouraged by mothers
 Often2.37 (1.65–3.41)*1.62 (1.14–2.31)*1.07 (0.76–1.50)1.41 (1.00–1.97)
Bottle emptying led by infants
 Often1.31 (0.96–1.79)1.24 (0.94–1.64)1.24 (0.96–1.60)0.88 (0.68–1.14)
  • Data are adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) from IFPS II, 2005–2007, and Y6FU, 2012 (N = 1117). If the 95% confidence interval does not include 1, the findings are considered significant and shown with an asterisk (*). BFI is defined as percentage of milk feeds given by bottle. Ref, reference.

  • a BFI (percentage of milk feedings given by bottle), bottle emptying encouraged by mothers, and bottle emptying led by infants were entered into each model simultaneously after adjusting for maternal age, marital status, parity, maternal education, household income, postpartum WIC participation, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy BMI, infant gender, gestational age, birth weight, and age when solid food or milk bottle was first reported.