TABLE 1

Prevalence of at Least 1 Occurrence of Infection in the Past Year Among 6-Year-Old US Children According to Maternal, Infant, and Child Characteristics, IFPS II (2005–2007) and Y6FU (2012)

VariableNPast-Year Infections at Age 6 Years (%)
Cold or Upper Respiratory TractEarThroatSinusPneumonia or LungUrinary Tract
Total128165.725.123.715.64.63.8
Maternal age, y
 18–2417860.727.523.615.23.93.4
 25–2941666.625.724.313.75.54.3
 30–3442669.721.625.118.15.24.2
 ≥3526161.328.020.714.92.72.7
Race/ethnicity
 White111966.725.724.716.14.54.0
 Black4257.121.416.79.57.10.0
 Hispanic6857.423.519.114.72.94.4
 Other5263.515.415.4a11.57.71.9
Maternal education
 ≤High school20761.830.421.719.31.93.9
 Some college46764.725.123.816.16.24.3
 College graduate60767.923.224.414.04.33.5
Poverty–income ratio, %
 <18543861.026.921.717.83.74.3
 185–35049065.924.726.913.75.33.7
 >35035371.4a23.221.815.64.83.4
Married
 No20561.022.918.115.64.45.9
 Yes107666.625.524.8a15.64.73.4
Parity
 Primiparous35269.623.326.115.65.15.1
 Multiparous92964.325.722.815.64.43.3
Postpartum WIC participation
 Yes38861.928.623.717.84.14.4
 No89367.423.523.714.74.83.6
Prepregnancy BMI
 Underweight (<18.5)4872.922.931.318.88.36.3
 Normal (18.5–24.9)57766.922.523.113.53.63.6
 Overweight (>25.0–29.9)32967.528.321.014.66.73.3
 Obese (≥30.0)32760.9a26.626.619.9a3.74.3
Infant’s gender
 Male63066.525.123.515.43.30.8
 Female65165.025.024.015.85.8a6.8a
Birth weight, g
 ≤4000111765.725.123.615.54.73.9
 >400016465.925.024.416.53.73.7
Infant cared for by someone other than parent at 3 mo
 Yes38867.025.327.121.43.42.8
 No73866.425.322.813.45.84.7
 Unknown15559.423.220.0a11.6a1.91.9
Attend after-school child care at 6 y
 Yes34767.724.525.716.46.14.0
 No93465.025.323.015.34.13.8
School type at 6 y
 Public104965.726.225.715.64.73.8
 Private15667.325.621.318.05.13.9
 Home-based7663.27.9a1.3a10.52.64.0
  • WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

  • a Significant findings based on P < .05 by using the χ2 test for the association between infection and each characteristic.