TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Infants With CDH Who Did and Did Not Die (N = 2022)

Baseline CharacteristicsAll Patients (N = 2022)No. Missing DataPatients Who Died (n = 561)Patients Who Did Not Die (n = 1456)P Valuea
Male1264 (62.7)10327 (58.5)933 (64.2)<.0001
Prenatal diagnosis present1343 (66.8)16450 (80.5)888 (61.4)<.0001
Liver in the chest on prenatal US709 (44.3)421170 (77.3)539 (39.0)<.0001
Outborn 1101 (54.5)6262 (46.7)839 (57.7)<.0001
Major cardiac abnormality present168 (8.31)5102 (18.2)66 (4.5)<.0001
Chromosomal abnormality present94 (4.7)560 (10.7)34 (2.3)<.0001
Other anatomic abnormality present351 (17.4)5143 (25.5)208 (14.3)<.0001
Median gestational age at birth, wk38 (37–39)20838 (35–39)38 (37–39)<.0001
Preterm (<37 wk GA)424 (23.4)208181 (35.6)243 (18.6)<.0001
Median birth weight, kg3.00 (2.60–3.38)212.71 (2.20–3.15)3.09 (2.72–3.42)<.0001
Low birth weight (<1500 g)417 (20.8)21203 (36.7)214 (14.8)<.0001
Non–left-sided defect337 (16.7)8103 (18.4)233 (16.0).20
Median 5-min Apgar score7 (6–8)1516 (4–7)8 (6–9)<.0001
Low Apgar score (<7)692 (37.0)155310 (61.8)382 (28.0)<.0001
Presence of severe pulmonary hypertension on first echocardiogramb682 (39.4)292285 (63.6)397 (31.0)<.0001
  • Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range). GA, gestational age; US, ultrasound.

  • a For all binary comparisons, Fisher’s exact test was performed; for continuous variables, the Wilcoxon rank sum tests were applied.

  • b Right to left shunt or estimate of suprasystemic pulmonary pressures on echocardiogram.