TABLE 1

Covariates and Their Assessment

VariableSurvey QuestionResponse Categories
Sociodemographics
 AgeHow old are you?Years
 GenderAre you a girl or a boy?Boy, Girl
 Family affluence scaleDoes your family own a car, van, or truck?No, Yes: 1, 2, or more
Do you have your own bedroom for yourself?No, Yes
During the past 12 mo, how many times did you travel away on holiday with your family?Not at all, Once, Twice, More than twice
How many computers does your family own?None, 1, 2, More than 2
Personal characteristics
 School performanceHow would you describe your grades last year?Excellent, Good, Average, Below average
 TV screen timeOn a school day, how many hours a day do you usually spend watching TV?None, Less than 1 h, 1–2 h, 3–4 h, More than 4 h
 Number of movies seenBelow is a list of movie titles. Please mark if, and how often, you have seen each movie.Never, Once, Twice, More than twice
 Sensation seeking or rebelliousness (Cronbach’s α = 0.70)How often do you do dangerous things for fun?Not at all, Once in a while, Sometimes, Often, Very often
How often do you do exciting things, even if they are dangerous?
I believe in following rules. (recoded)Not at all, A bit, Quite well, Very well
I get angry when anybody tells me what to do.
Social environment
 Peer drinkingHow many of your friends drink alcohol?None, A few, Some, Most, All
 Mother drinkingHow often does your mother or female guardian drink alcohol?Never, Seldom, Often but not every day, Every day
Don’t have (coded “no”)
 Father drinkingHow often does your father or male guardian drink alcohol?Never, Seldom, Often but not every day, Every day
Don’t have (coded “no”)
 Sibling drinkingDo any of your brothers or sisters drink alcohol?Yes, No, Don’t have (coded “no”)