TABLE 4

Effects of Child and Maternal Variables on Development in PPVT-R Raw Scores From 3 to 12 Years of Corrected Age Among Preterm Children, With Adjustment for Covariates (N = 346)

PredictorsEstimate ± SEfExplainable Between-Subject Variation, %a
InterceptSlope (Interaction With Age)Curvature (Interaction With Age2)InitialGrowth Rate
Baseline11.2 ± 2.116.1 ± 1.0−0.6 ± 0.1
Indomethacin use−0.7 ± 1.8NSb60
Male gender−3.9 ± 1.7cNS
Indomethacin × male gender4.3 ± 2.4dNS
BPD—3.3 ± 1.2c<1
Severe brain injury−3.9 ± 2.5−5.8 ± 1.3e0.3 ± 0.1c<114
Prenatal steroid treatment1.7 ± 1.3NS<10
Maternal education (vs no high school)
    High school5.1 ± 1.9e1.8 ± 1.0d−0.2 ± 0.1c20
    College education8.6 ± 2.0e3.1 ± 1.1c−0.2 ± 0.1c2210
Minority status (vs white non-Hispanic)−8.1 ± 1.4e−2.3 ± 0.8c0.2 ± 0.1c3416
  • a Calculated from the variance component (random effects) when each predictor is entered individually in the growth-curve model.

  • b NS indicates not significant (P > .15).

  • c P < .05.

  • d P < .15.

  • e P < .001.

  • f Units = PPVT-R raw points.