TABLE 3

Associations Between Child and Maternal Physical Activity Levels, and Influence of Temporal and Demographic Factors

Sedentary TimeLPAMVPA
UnadjustedAdjustedaUnadjustedAdjustedaUnadjustedAdjusteda
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)GMRb (95% CI)
Average daily activity0.17 (0.14 to 0.20)**0.18 (0.13 to 0.22)**0.18 (0.15 to 0.21)**0.14 (0.09 to 0.19)**1.10 (1.08 to 1.12)**1.10 (1.06 to 1.14)**
Interaction terms
 Gender−0.01 (–0.08 to 0.05)0.03 (–0.03 to 0.10)1.17 (0.93 to 1.07)
 Weight status
  Underweight−0.11 (–0.24 to 0.03)−0.08 (–0.17 to 0.01)0.96 (0.89 to 1.04)
  Overweight/obese−0.10 (–0.19 to 0.00)*−0.13 (–0.27 to 0.01)1.01 (0.91 to 1.13)
 Full-time preschool attendance (ref: part-time)−0.16 (–0.28 to –0.03)*−0.11 (–0.23 to 0.02)0.99 (0.90 to 1.09)
 Age mother left full-time education (ref: ≤16 y)
  17–18 y−0.03 (–0.11 to 0.04)0.09 (0.01 to 0.17)*1.00 (0.94 to 1.06)
  >18 y−0.05 (–0.13 to 0.03)−0.05 (–0.13 to 0.03)0.95 (0.94 to 0.99)*
 Time of the week (ref: weekday)0.03 (–0.02 to 0.08)0.05 (0.00 to 0.10)*0.95 (0.90 to 0.99)*
 Association by time of day
  Morning (6 am–12 pm)0.21 (0.19 to 0.24)**0.21 (0.18 to 0.24)**0.26 (0.22 to 0.29)**0.22 (0.19 to 0.26)**1.17 (1.13 to 1.21)**1.15 (1.12 to 1.21)**
  Afternoon (12–5 pm)0.13 (0.09 to 0.16)**0.12 (0.09 to 0.16)**0.08 (0.05 to 0.11)**0.08 (0.05 to 0.11)**1.14 (1.09 to 1.17)**1.13 (1.10 to 1.18)**
  Evening (5–11 pm)0.16 (0.12 to 0.20)**0.18 (0.14 to 0.22)**0.34 (0.30 to 0.38)**0.35 (0.31 to 0.40)**1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)**1.07 (1.02 to 1.15)**
  • β, β regression coefficient (minutes of activity).

  • a Model adjusted for child gender, weight status, time spent at preschool, age mother left full-time education, and time of the week.

  • b Exponentiated β or GMR: any deviation from 1 indicates a % change in child’s MVPA per unit change in mother’s MVPA relative to the reference category.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .005.