Covariate-Adjusted Standardized Means From Linear Regressions Predicting Physical and Mental Health Outcomes With Bullying History

Fifth-Grade Bullying HistorySeventh-Grade Bullying HistoryTenth-Grade Bullying History
Not Bullied (78.1%)Present (21.9%)Not Bullied (72.9%)Past Only (17.6%)Present Only (5.2%)Past and Present (4.3%)Not Bullied (69.8%)Past Only (23.8%)Present Only (3.0%)Past and Present (3.4%)
Psychosocial quality of life0.21–0.760.18–0.22–0.82−1.080.13–0.14–0.70−1.11
 vs not bullied*********************
 vs past only************
 vs present onlya**
Physical quality of life0.10–0.370.08–0.10–0.37–0.560.05–0.06–0.30–0.40
 vs not bullied*****************
 vs past only****a**
 vs present onlyaa
Depression symptoms–0.140.51––
 vs not bullied*********************
 vs past only***********
 vs present onlya***
 vs not bullied********************
 vs past only******
 vs present onlyaa
  • Bullying history was dummy-coded as not bullied, bullied in past only, bullied in present only, or bullied in both past and present. Weighted percentages are shown underneath each bullying category. Multivariable models controlled for child race/ethnicity, gender, age, chronic illness status, BMI percentile, and sexual orientation; household income; parent education and marital status; geographic setting; and school-level means for race/ethnicity and BMI percentile, with missing indicators for income, education, and BMI. Outcomes were not imputed; sample sizes ranged from 4267 to 4297 depending on outcome and grade.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.

  • a P ≥ .05.