TABLE 2

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Rates by Demographic Characteristics

Variablen (%)Detectable Serum CotinineaDetectable Salivary CotinineaAny Reported Tobacco Exposure
n (%)Pn (%)Pn (%)P
Race (N = 619).001<.0001.02
 White198 (32.0)99 (50.0)136 (68.7)57 (28.8)
 African American355 (57.4)217 (61.1)308 (86.8)141 (39.7)
 Multiracial60 (9.7)31 (51.7)48 (80.0)19 (31.7)
 Other6 (1.0)0 (0)1 (16.7)0 (0.0)
Income (N = 613)<.0001<.0001<.0001
 <$15 000221 (36.1)159 (71.9)209 (94.6)101 (45.7)
 $15 000–$29 000165 (26.9)106 (64.2)143 (86.7)69 (41.8)
 $30 000–$44 99983 (13.5)40 (48.2)63 (75.9)24 (28.9)
 $45 000–$59 99936 (5.9)19 (52.8)25 (69.4)9 (25.0)
 $60 000–$89 99964 (10.4)14 (21.9)32 (50.0)7 (10.9)
 >$90 00044 (7.2)5 (11.4)15 (34.1)4 (9.1)
Caregiver education (N =595)<.0001<.0001<.0001
 Eighth grade or less3 (1)3 (100)3 (100)1 (33.3)
 More than eighth grade, not high school90 (15.1)75 (83.3)85 (94.4)43 (47.8)
 High school graduate163 (27.4)95 (58.3)138 (84.7)102 (62.6)
 Some college176 (29.6)106 (60.2)144 (81.9)112 (63.6)
 2-year college75 (12.6)38 (50.7)62 (82.7)51 (68.0)
 4-year college and above88 (14.8)16 (18.2)40 (45.5)79 (89.8)
Gender (N = 619).61.75.09
 Male404 (65.3)223 (44.8)320 (80.4)130 (67.3)
 Female215 (34.7)124 (42.3)173 (79.2)272 (60.5)
Use of controller medication for asthma (N = 618).98.76.98
 Yes249 (40.3)139 (55.8)200 (80.3)162 (65.0)
 No369 (59.7)207 (56.1)292 (79.1)240 (65.0)
Any reported tobacco exposure (N = 619)<.0001<.0001
 Yes217 (35.1)157 (87.6)281 (97.7)
 No402 (64.9)190 (39.1)212 (69.9)
  • a Dichotomized on the basis of values being either above or below the LOD.