TABLE 1

Participant Demographic Characteristics and Exposures

VariableIncludedExcludedP
Total, n619155
Race, n (%).29
 White198 (32.0)56 (36.1)
 African American355 (57.4)86 (55.5)
 Multiracial60 (9.69)8 (5.16)
 Other6 (0.97)2 (1.29)
 Missing0 (0.00)3 (1.94)
Gender, n (%).82
 Male404 (65.3)99 (63.9)
 Female215 (34.7)56 (36.1)
Age, mean (SD), y6.43 (4.02)5.08 (3.58)<.0001
Type of insurance, n (%).99
 Private138 (22.3)33 (5.3)
 Public451 (72.9)111 (17.9)
 Self-pay22 (3.6)5 (0.8)
 Other7 (1.1)2 (0.3)
 Don’t know1 (0.20)0 (0.0)
Income, n (%).31
 <$15 000221 (35.7)40 (25.8)
 $15 000–$29 000165 (26.7)47 (30.3)
 $30 000–$44 99983 (13.4)25 (16.1)
 $45 000–$59 99936 (5.82)10 (6.45)
 $60 000–$89 99964 (10.3)14 (9.03)
 >$90 00044 (7.11)11 (7.10)
 Missing6 (0.97)8 (5.16)
Caregiver education, n (%).02
 Eighth grade or less3 (4.85)3 (1.94)
 More than eighth grade, not high school90 (14.5)25 (16.1)
 High school graduate163 (26.3)41 (26.5)
 Some college176 (28.4)44 (28.4)
 2-year college75 (12.1)8 (5.16)
 4-year college or above88 (14.2)29 (18.7)
 Missing24 (3.88)5 (3.22)
Use of daily asthma controller medication, n (%).21
 Yes249 (40.2)70 (45.2)
 No369 (59.6)81 (52.2)
 Missing1 (1.6)4 (2.6)
Serum cotininea.59
 Above LOD347 (56.1)34 (21.9)
 Below LOD272 (43.9)22 (14.2)
 Missing99 (63.9)
Salivary cotininea.06
 Above LOD493 (79.6)79 (51.0)
 Below LOD126 (24.4)10 (6.45)
 Missing66 (42.6)
Any reported tobacco exposure.38
 Yes217 (35.1)44 (28.4)
 No402 (64.9)99 (63.9)
 Missing12 (7.74)
Readmission within 12 months of enrollment.007
 Yes103 (16.6)41 (26.5)
 No516 (83.4)114 (73.5)
  • —, no data available.

  • a Refers to cotinine level as measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.