TABLE 3

Comparisons of Neuropsychological Scores Between Preterm and Term Children at 12 Years' Chronological Age

Preterm (N = 375)Term (N = 111)All Children Included, Adjusted Mean Difference or OR (95% CI)Children With Severe Brain Injury Excluded, Adjusted Mean Difference or OR (95% CI)a
nMean (SD)nMean (SD)
Language
    PPVT-R, mean (SD)36192.0 (25.2)110105.4 (20.9)−11.4 (−16.2 to −6.6)b−8.7 (−12.8 to −4.5)b
    PPVT-R < 70, n/N (%)48/361 (13.3)4/110 (3.6)5.0 (1.6 to 15.3)c4.3 (1.3 to 14.5)c
    CTOPP, mean (SD)
    Rapid naming total33693.6 (21.4)111100.8 (15.6)−5.6 (−9.9 to −1.2)c−3.3 (−7.3 to 0.8)
    Rapid naming < 70, n/N (%)45/336 (13.4)4/111 (3.6)3.8 (1.3 to 10.8)c2.6 (0.9 to 7.8)
CELF, mean (SD)
    Expressive33185.8 (19.8)11099.53 (15.1)−11.7 (−15.4 to −8.0)b−9.9 (−13.4 to −6.4)b
    Receptive33186.9 (21.0)110102.66 (17.7)−13.7 (−17.7 to −9.8)b−11.7 (−15.4 to −7.9)b
    Total33085.4 (20.0)110100.71 (16.1)−13.2 (−16.9 to −9.5)b−11.2 (−14.7 to −7.7)b
CELF, n/N (%)
    Expressive < 7074/331 (22.4)3/110 (2.7)13.2 (3.8 to 45.9)b11.1 (3.1 to 39.8)b
    Receptive < 7073/331 (22.1)4/110 (3.6)8.8 (3.0 to 26.0)b7.4 (2.4 to 22.5)b
    Total < 7078/330 (23.6)3/110 (2.7)13.7 (4.0 to 46.8)b11.7 (3.3 to 41.3)b
TOWRE, mean (SD)
    Sight word efficiency33993.7 (16.7)111101.2 (11.9)−5.7 (−8.9 to −2.5)b−4.0 (−7.0 to −1.0)c
    Phonemic decoding33991.6 (18.3)109100.2 (14.0)−6.6 (−10.2 to −3.0)b−5.0 (−8.4 to −1.6)c
TOWRE, n/N (%)
    Sight word efficiency < 7034/339 (10.0)0/109
    Phonemic decoding < 7044/339 (13.0)1/109 (0.9)17.6 (2.3 to 134.7)b14.4 (1.8 to 117.5)c
GSRT, mean (SD)36188.6 (24.8)109104.3 (22.4)−12.8 (−17.7 to −8.0)b−11.2 (−16.0 to −6.4)b
GSRT < 70, n/N(%)91/361 (25.2)5/109 (4.6)7.1 (2.7 to 18.4)b5.9 (2.2 to 15.5)b
Perceptual-motor skills
    VMI, mean (SD)35282.4 (14.0)10791.5 (13.7)−8.3 (−11.2 to −5.3)b−7.1 (−9.9 to −4.2)b
    VMI < 70, n/N (%)57/352 (16.2)2/107 (1.9)9.5 (2.3 to 39.7)b7.3 (1.7 to 31.1)c
  • Adjustment for male gender, maternal age < 20 years, maternal years of education, minority status, and single-parent household.

  • a Severe brain injury: grade 3 and 4 IVH, PVL, grade 2 and above ventriculomegaly.

  • b P < .005.

  • c P < .05.