TABLE 4

Summary of Results of Studies of Nonsurgical UL Interventions Reporting on UL Outcomes

StudyOutcomeTiming, wknTreatment, Mean (±SD)nControl, Mean (±SD)SMD (95% CI)P
NDT
 Law et al12 (a)PFMS261935.4 (13.9)1828.1 (18.4)0.43 (−0.21 to 1.09)
QUEST66.8 (23)1847.9 (26.8)0.74 (0.08 to 1,41).03
 Law et al12 (b)PFMS261733.7 (20.1)1830.8 (21.3)0.13 (−0.53 to 0.80)
QUEST50.9 (25.7)47.2 (28.9)0.13 (−0.53 to 0.80)
 Law et al13 (a)PFMS162621.8 (8.5)2420.9 (9.0)0.10 (−0.45 to 0.66)
QUEST53.3 (22.9)47.3 (27.7)0.23 (−0.32 to 0.79)
 Law et al13 (b)PFMS402624.7 (13.4)2424.9 (12.3)−0.02 (−0.57 to 0.54)
QUEST53.3 (25.1)49.0 (24.4)0.17 (−0.38 to 0.73)
BoNT-A
 Fehlings et al14QUEST41432.54 (17.8)1527.6 (19.0)0.26 (−0.47 to 0.99)
1228.5 (20.2)30.4 (19.6)−0.10 (−0.82 to 0.64)
2630.7 (18.8)34.4 (24.4)−0.17 (−0.89 to 0.57)
 Speth et al15aMelbA21067.7 (58, 79)1060.3 (44, 79)Not estimable
668.5 (56, 77)65.6 (48, 81)Not estimable
1272.1 (49, 82)64.4 (48, 76)Not estimable
2468.9 (56, 83)66.6 (49, 78)Not estimable
3668.5 (49, 82)62.7 (48, 85)Not estimable
 Lowe et al16QUEST42143.9 (15.1)2136 (12.4)0.55 (−0.07 to 1.17)
1246.2 (16)37.1 (11.9)0.65 (0.01 to 1.25).04
2640.7 (14.7)39.6(12.8)0.08 (−0.53 to 0.68)
 Kawamura et al17QUEST-T41849.8 (16.0)2147.8 (18.8)0.11 (−0.52 to 0.74)
1251.3 (14.0)48.3 (19.2)0.18 (−0.55 to 0.91)
 Wallen et al18 (a)bMelbA121363.69 (20.9)961.4 (21.2)0.18 (−0.67 to 1.03)
26764.26 (24.2)658.7 (23.8)0.23 (−0.63 to 1.07)
QUEST1267.5 (17.4)30.6 (35)2.12 (0.76 to 3.48).00
2662.1 (23.6)30.6 (30.4)1.17 (−0.8 to 2.26)
 Wallen et al18 (b)cMelbA121157.4 (24.8)1163.5 (29.0)−0.22 (−1.06 to 0.62)
2658.0 (23.4)64.8 (30.0)−0.25 (−1.08 to 0.6)
QUEST12934.5 (38)639.4 (20.6)−0.14 (−1.18 to 0.89)
2628.3 (32.8)736.7 (31.7)−0.26 (−1.24 to 0.75)
 Olesch et al20QUEST-DM161180.1 (13.3)1173.8 (13.9)0.46 (−0.40 to 1.29)
3276.6 (9.5)74 (13.2)0.23 (−0.60 to 1.06)
4879.9 (10.9)74.9 (11.8)0.44 (−0.42 to 1.27)
QUEST-G1668.4 (13.1)65.3 (11.9)0.25 (−0.60 to 1.08)
3271.4 (14.8)68.4 (12.7)0.22 (−0.63 to 1.05)
4873.4 (11)60.9 (16.3)0.91 (0.00 to 1.75)
QUEST-T1676.3 (13.2)70.8 (12.8)0.42 (−0.44 to 1.25)
3276.9 (10.4)69.3 (13.4)0.63 (−0.25 to 1.46)
4879.6 (8.0)72.9 (11.5)0.68 (−0.21 to 1.51)
PFMS16519.6 (25.3)513.1 (33.8)0.22 (−0.63 to 1.05)
32524.8 (26.7)528.7 (36)−0.12 (−0.95 to 0.72)
48542.6 (36.2)537.6 (37.2)0.14 (−0.71 to 0.97).05
 Kanellopoulos21 et alQUEST81076.6 (9.1)1078.9 (14.4)−0.19 (−1.06 to 0.7)
2671.5 (10.7)79.4 (14.9)−0.61 (−1.48 to 0.31)
 Rameckers et al24MelbA261068.4 (9.2)1065.6 (10.8)0.28 (−0.61 to 1.15)
3268.7 (10.2)64.4 (13.6)0.36 (−0.54 to 1.23)
 Elvrum et al23MelbA8584.2 (8.5)580.0 (8.4)0.50 (−0.81 to 1.70)
2085.3 (10.0)79.8 (9.9)0.55 (−0.84 to 1.83)
AHA864.6 (12.5)62.6 (10.4)0.17 (−1.08 to 1.40)
2066.0 (13.6)61.8 (11.6)0.34 (−1.02 to 1.62)
cCIMT
 Taub et al6PMAL-amt0.492.8 (1.1)91.2 (0.8)1.54 (0.49 to 2.60).00
32.6 (1.3)1.2 (0.7)1.36 (0.28 to 2.31).01
PMAL-qual0.42.7 (1.0)1.8 (1.1)0.73 (−0.23 to 1.68)
32.6 (1.3)1.8 (1.0)0.70 (−0.28 to 1.62)
EBS0.421.5 (4.5)15 (5.7)1.22 (0.22 to 2.23).02
 Taub et al26PMAL-qual4103.5 (0.6)101.4 (0.5)3.8 (2.21 to 5.09).00
INMAP435.9 (6.2)27.8 (6.6)1.27 (0.26 to 2.17).01
PAFT-use445 (32.6)15 (12.9)1.21 (0.21 to 2.11).01
PAFT-FA42.6 (0.4)2.1 (0.6)0.98 (0.02 to 1.86).04
 Case-Smith et al27 and DeLuca et al28QUEST-G194.5 (2.6)95 (2.6)−0.19 (−1.11 to 0.74)
45.3 (3.1)5.7 (3.0)−0.13 (−1.05 to 0.80)
266.1 (2.9)5.9 (3.6)0.06 (−0.87 to 0.98)
QUEST-DM 122.1 (6)21.9 (9.1)0.03 (−0.90 to 0.95)
422.3 (6.3)23.2 (8.5)−0.12 (−1.04 to 0.81)
2619.9 (5.5)22.6 (7.2)−0.42 (−1.33 to 0.53)
PMAL-amt13.1 (1.3)3.6 (1.0)−0.43 (−1.34 to 0.52)
43.2 (1.2)3.4 (1.0)−0.28 (−1.20 to 0.66)
263.1 (1.2)3.5 (1.3)−0.32 (−1.23 to 0.62)
PMAL-qual13.4 (1.4)3.4 (0.8)0.0 (−0.92 to 0.92)
43.0 (1.1)3.7 (1.1)−0.64 (−1.55 to 0.34)
263.1 (1.2)3.6 (1.4)−0.38 (−1.30 to 0.57)
AHA10.8 (3.3)3.0 (3.9)−0.61 (−1.52 to 0.36)
41.1 (3.8)2.6 (3.7)−0.40 (−1.31 to 0.55)
261.4 (3.2)3.1 (4.1)−0.47 (−1.38 to 0.49)
mCIMT
 Charles et al7Jebsen111278.5 (240.6)11301 (182.2)0.10 (−0.73 to 0.94)
4268.6 (238)260.3 (153)−0.04 (−0.88 to 0.80)
26272.5 (236.6)297 (200)0.11 (−0.73 to 0.94)
BOTMP17.2 (2.9)5.2 (4.2)0.53 (−0.32 to 1.38)
47.6 (4.4)5.5 (4.1)0.49 (−0.37 to 1.32)
266.9 (3.7)6.3 (5.1)0.13 (−0.71 to 0.97)
 Al Oraibi et al30AHAPost (NR)748 (11.7)756.6 (18.7)−0.55 (−1.58 to 0.55)
 Lin et al31BOTMP-811011.6 (9.4)117.23 (8.4)0.49 (−0.4 to 1.34)
2610 (8.9)7.1 (9.3)0.32 (−0.56 to 1.16)
PDMS-G145.9 (7.8)44.3 (6.2)0.23 (−0.64 to 1.08)
2646.4 (7.4)44 (6.2)0.35 (−0.52 to 1.20)
PDMS-V1118.9 (26.6)113.1 (23.4)0.23 (−0.64 to 1.08)
26122.9 (25.2)113.7 (23.2)0.38 (−0.5 to 1.23)
PMAL-amt 12.75 (1.1)2.1 (1.0)0.57 (−0.32 to 1.42)
263.1 (1.0)2.3 (1.2)0.73 (−0.19 to 1.58)
PMAL-qual12.8 (1.0)2.3 (0.9)0.63 (−0.27 to 1.48)
263.2 (0.9)2.2 (1.0)1.01 (0.06 to 1.87).03
CFUS-amt12.7 (1.1)2.6 (1.2)0.09 (−0.77 to 0.94)
263.2 (1.0)2.5 (1.1)0.70 (−0.18 to 1.53)
CFUS-qual12.7 (1.1)2.4 (1.0)0.35 (−0.53 to 1.20)
263.0 (0.9)2.5 (0.9)0.51 (−0.38 to 1.35)
 Sakzewski et al32MelbA33169 (12.4)3171.5 (9.7)−0.17 (−0.67 to 0.33)
2671.1 (11.7)71 (11.0)0.01 (−0.51 to 0.52)
5268.9 (12.4)74.6 (11.8)−0.47 (−0.06 to 0.99)
Jebsen332382.5 (203.8)413.2 (179.8)−0.16 (−0.65 to 0.34)
26412.1 (190.0)432.6 (177.3)−0.11 (−0.63 to 0.41)
52434.7 (196.9)438 (180.3)0.02 (−0.50 to 0.54)
AHA33164.8 (13.1)64.9 (11.5)−0.01 (−0.51 to, 0.49)
2663.0 (13.9)65.3 (11.5)−0.18 (−0.69 to 0.34)
5264.1 (11.7)65.7 (12.6)−0.13 (−0.65 to 0.39)
 Wallen et al37PMALR-amt102557.5 (20)2551.5 (17.3)0.32 (−0.24 to 0.87)
2661.5 (18.5)53.6 (16.1)0.46 (−0.11 to 1.01)
PMALR-qual1059.6 (23.6)51.3 (19.7)0.38 (−0.18 to 0.94)
2662.1 (22.5)53.6 (16.1)0.44 (−0.13 to 0.99)
AHA1062.9 (29.3)52 (28.9)0.37 (−0.19 to 0.93)
2667.9 (26.3)54.5 (26.9)0.10 (−0.45 to 0.65)
 Gordon et al58Jebsen0.321486.9 (184.9)21470.4 (184.9)0.09 (−0.52 to 0.69)
4512.9 (142.6)483.1 (142.6)0.21 (−0.40 to 0.81)
26499 (165.5)497.3 (165.5)0.01 (−0.59 to 0.61)
QUEST-DM 0.390.3 (5.4)91.2 (5.1)−0.17 (−0.77 to 0.44)
491.3 (5.1)90.8 (5.4)0.10 (−0.51 to 0.70)
2689.1 (6.3)90.9 (6.3)−0.29 (−0.89 to 0.33)
QUEST-G0.380.6 (11.2)79.4 (11.2)0.11 (−0.50 to 0.71)
481.2 (10.5)79.9 (10.5)0.12 (−0.48 to 0.73)
2678.8 (14.5)76.2 (14.3)0.18 (−0.43 to 0.78)
AHA0.30.8 (1.8)0.94 (1.8)−0.08 (−0.68 to 0.53)
40.9 (1.8)0.98 (1.8)−0.04 (−0.65 to 0.53)
261.05 (1.6)0.99 (1.6)−0.04 (−0.57 to 0.64
 Eliasson et al40AHA11259 (9)1346 (21)0.79 (−0.05 to 1.58)
3256 (19)63 (7)−0.48 (−1.26 to 0.33)
 Facchin et al38d and Fedrizzi et al39 (a)QUEST-T13976.3 (14.9)3370.0 (20.3)0.36 (−0.11 to 0.82)
1273.8 (16.7)71.4 (19.1)0.13 (−0.33 to 0.60)
2676.1 (15.2)74.6 (18.3)0.09 (−0.37 to 0.55)
QUEST-G172.1 (18.8)66.9 (22.1)0.26 (−0.21 to 0.72)
1270.8 (18.7)67.6 (20.7)0.16 (−0.30 to 0.63)
2669.2 (21.3)68.9 (24.0)0.01 (−0.45 to 0.48)
Besta-T12.6 (0.8)2.7 (0.9)−0.15 (−0.61 to 0.32)
122.7 (0.8)2.8 (0.9)−0.16 (−0.62 to 0.31)
262.7 (0.8)2.9 (0.9)−0.23 (−0.69 to 0.24)
Besta-G13.2 (0.7)2.9 (0.9)0.36 (−0.11 to 0.82)
123.1 (0.7)3.0 (0.9)0.22 (−0.24 to 0.69)
263.1 (0.7)3.0 (0.9)0.14 (−0.33 to 0.60)
Besta-Bim12.8 (0.8)2.9 (0.8)−0.22 (−0.69 to 0.24)
122.7 (0.9)2.9 (0.9)−0.22 (−0.68 to 0.25)
262.8 (0.8)3.1 (0.9)−0.33 (−0.79 to 0.14)
 Facchin et al38e and Fedrizzi et al39 (b)QUEST-T13976.3 (14.9)3372.6 (17.7)0.23 (−0.79 to 0.14)
1273.8 (16.7)68 (15.9)0.35 (−0.12 to 0.82)
2676.1 (15.2)71.3 (15.7)0.31 (−0.16 to 0.77)
QUEST-G172.1 (18.8)66.1 (20.8)0.30 (−0.17 to 0.77)
1270.8 (18.7)62.4 (16.5)0.47 (0.00 to 0.94).05
2669.2 (21.3)66.5 (19.9)0.14 (−0.33 to 0.60)
Besta-T12.6 (0.8)2.71 (0.8)−0.12 (−0.58 to 0.35)
122.7 (0.8)2.68 (0.7)−0.03 (−0.49 to 0.44)
262.7 (0.8)2.7 (0.8)−0.05 (−0.52 to 0.41)
Besta-G13.2 (0.7)3.0 (0.8)0.20 (−0.27 to 0.66)
123.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)0.11 (−0.35 to 0.57)
263.1 (0.7)3.1 (0.7)0.10 (−0.37 to 0.56)
Besta-Bim12.8 (0.8)3.0 (0.7)−0.35 (−0.81 to 0.12)
122.7 (0.9)3.0 (0.7)−0.29 (−0.76 to 0.18)
262.8 (0.8)2.9 (0.7)−0.21 (−0.67 to 0.26)
 Facchin et al38f and Fedrizzi et al39 (c)QUEST-T13370.0 (20.3)3372.6 (17.7)−0.14 (−0.62 to 0.35)
1271.4 (19.1)68 (15.9)0.19 (−0.29 to 0.67)
2674.6 (18.3)71.3 (15.7)0.19 (−0.29 to 0.67)
QUEST-G166.9 (22.1)66.1 (20.8)0.04 (−0.45 to 0.52)
1267.6 (20.7)62.4 (16.5)0.28 (−0.21 to 0.76)
2668.9 (24.0)66.5 (19.9)0.11 (−0.38 to 0.59)
Besta-T12.7 (0.9)2.7 (0.8)0.04 (−0.45 to 0.52)
122.8 (0.9)2.7 (0.7)0.15 (−0.34 to 0.63)
262.9 (0.9)2.7 (0.8)0.20 (−0.28 to 0.68)
Besta-G12.9 (0.9)3.0 (0.8)−0.16 (−0.64 to 0.33)
123.0 (0.9)3.1 (0.7)−0.12 (−0.60 to 0.36)
263.0 (0.9)3.1 (0.7)−0.05 (−0.53 to 0.43)
Besta-Bim12.9 (0.9)3.0 (0.7)−0.11 (−0.59 to 0.38)
122.9 (0.9)3.0 (0.7)−0.05 (−0.53 to 0.43)
263.0 (0.9)2.9 (0.7)0.15 (−0.33 to 0.64)
 Rostami et al44 (a)PMAL-amt0.172.1 (0.5)72.2 (0.3)0.0 (−1.05 to 1.05)
123.0 (0.4)2.2 (0.3)2.26 (0.8 to 3.41).00
PMAL-qual0.12.3 (0.3)2.2 (0.3)0.3 (−0.74 to 1.36)
123.2 (0.4)2.1 (0.2)3.48 (1.64 to 4.83).00
BOTMP-50.10.6 (0.2)0.7 (0.2)−0.5 (−1.53 to 0.6)
121.1 (0.2)0.7 (0.2)2.0 (0.61 to 3.11).00
BOTMP-80.11.6 (0.2)1.5 (0.2)0.5 (−0.6 to 1.53)
122.3 (0.2)1.6 (0.2)3.5 (1.66 to 4.85).00
 Rostami et al45 (b)gPMAL-amt0.182.5 (0.51)83.3 (0.32)−1.88 (−2.93 to −0.62).00
122.5 (0.29)3.4 (0.46)−2.31 (−3.43 to −0.95).00
PMAL-qual0.12.2 (0.19)3.5 (0.28)−5.18 (−6.86 to −2.94).00
122.4 (0.14)3.3 (0.19)−5.69 (−7.49 to −3.27).00
BOTMP-80.11.4 (0.37)0.3 (0.08)−1.54 (−2.56 to −0.35).01
121.3 (0.12)0.4 (0.07)−2.73 (−3.91 to −1.25).01
 Rostami et al45 (c)hPMAL-amt0.182.54 (0.51)80.8 (0.21)4.49 (2.48 to 6.01).00
122.5 (0.29)0.8 (0.16)7.0 (4.13 to 9.11).00
PMAL-qual 0.12.2 (0.19)0.7 (0.37)5.27 (3.0 to 6.97).00
122.4 (0.14)0.7 (0.24)8.4 (5.02 to 10.86).00
BOTMP-80.11.4 (0.37)0.3 (0.08)4.0 (2.14 to 5.41).00
121.3 (0.120.4 (0.07)9.67 (5.83 to 12.46).00
 Rostami et al45 (d)iPMAL-amt0.182.4 (0.45)80.8 (0.21)4.5 (2.48 to 6.02).00
122.3 (0.37)0.8 (0.16)5.02 (2.83 to 6.66).00
PMAL-qual0.12.3 (0.24)0.7 (0.37)5.13 (2.9 to 6.8).00
122.2 (0.17)0.7 (0.24)7.36 (4.35 to 9.56).00
BOTMP-80.11.2 (0.23)0.3 (0.08)5.46 (3.12 to 7.20).00
121.3 (0.14)0.4 (0.07)8.22 (4.91 to 10.64).00
 Xu et al41 (a)j (change scores)9-hole peg2238.1 (9.2)226.1 (6.1)0.26 (−0.34 to 0.84)
1214.4 (16.2)13 (12.5)0.1 (−0.49 to 0.68)
2622.3 (18.5)30.7 (53.6)−0.21 (−0.79 to 0.38)
PFMS-G20.5 (0.7)0.5 (0.9)0 (−0.58 to 0.58)
121.7 (0.8)1.3 (1.0)0.44 (−0.16 to 1.03)
262.2 (1.1)1.8 (1.0)0.38 (−0.22 to 0.96)
PFMS-V21.3 (1.5)0.6 (1.1)0.53 (−0.07 to 1.12)
123.7 (2.2)2.4 (1.8)0.65 (0.03 to 1.23).04
265.8 (2.8)3.7 (2.5)0.79 (0.17 to 1.38).01
 Xu et al41 (b)k (change scores)9-hole peg2236.1 (6.1)232.7 (5.5)0.59 (−0.02 to 1.17)
1213 (12.5)9.0 (9.6)0.36 (−0.24 to 0.94)
2630.7 (53.6)14.0 (13.5)0.43 (−0.17 to 1.02)
PFMS-G20.5 (0.9)0.4 (0.8)0.12 (−0.47 to 0.7)
121.3 (1.0)1.3 (0.8)0 (−0.58 to 0.58)
261.8 (1.0)1.8 (1.1)0 (−0.58 to 0.58)
PFMS-V20.6 (1.1)0.3 (2.4)0.16 (−0.43 to 0.74)
122.4 (1.8)2.0 (2.5)0.18 (−0.41 to 0.77)
263.7 (2.5)2.8 (2.6)0.35 (−0.24 to 0.94)
 Hsin et al42 and Chen et al43BOTMP-811110.6 (1.6)118.9 (1.1)1.24 (0.28 to 2.10).01
122412.6 (1.6)2310.2 (1.5)1.55 (0.54 to 2.43).00
RPMAL-amt1112.5 (0.3)112.3 (0.3)0.67 (0.07 to 1.24).03
12242.9 (0.3)232.8 (0.4)0.28 (−0.57 to 1.11)
RPMAL-qual 1112.4 (0.3)112.2 (0.3)0.67 (0.07 to 1.11).03
12243.0 (0.3)242.7 (0.3)1.00 (0.08 to 1.84).03
PFMS-G144.1 (2.8)41.1 (3.1)1.02 (0.39 to 1.61).00
PFMS-VMI1135.4 (4.4)128.0 (4.0)1.76 (1.06 to 2.40).00
 Choudhary et al46QUEST total41687.2 (9.4)1582.5 (9.2)0.51 (−0.22 to 1.21)
1287.3 (10)84.9 (8.3)0.26 (−0.45 to 0.96)
QUEST-G483.1 (10)76.3 (9.3)0.70 (−0.04 to 1.41)
1283.3 (10.5)78.5 (9.9)0.47 (−0.26 to 1.17)
QUEST-DM483.5 (10.8)81.6 (12.2)0.17 (−0.54 to 0.87)
1283.4 (12.7)82.9 (12.7)0.04 (−0.67 to 0.74)
9-hole peg4105.4 (47.3)151.5 (61.7)−0.84 (−1.55 to −0.09).03
1295.1 (44.8)137.4 (59.9)−0.80 (−1.51 to −0.05).03
 Hoare et al47QUEST-DM41772.5 (12.0)1774.6 (14.7)−0.16 (−0.83 to 0.52)
1273.7 (16.5)75 (13.9)−0.08 (−0.76 to 0.59)
2667.7 (16.4)75.7 (12.7)−0.54 (−1.22 to 0.15)
QUEST-G457.2 (20.8)57.7 (18.7)−0.02 (−0.70 to 0.65)
1255.7 (24.7)59.4 (18.7)−0.17 (−0.84 to 0.51)
2661.2 (18.2)56.7 (13.6)0.28 (−0.4 to 0.95)
AHA439.6 (16.5)44.5 (17.3)−0.29 (−0.96 to 0.39)
1244.5 (17.1)49.5 (12.4)−0.33 (−1.0 to 0.35)
2646.1 (15.3)50.8 (11.5)−0.35 (−1.02 to 0.34)
Hybrid model: combined mCIMT and BIM
 de Brito Brandão et al9Jebsen18115.2 (112.6)7180.4 (203.7)−0.40 (−1.40 to 0.64)
490.5 (99.8)146.1 (186.4)−0.38 (−1.38 to 0.66)
 Aarts et al36ABILHAND92828.4 (5.9)2423.7 (6.0)0.79 (0.2 to 1.36).01
1728.9 (5.2)24.4 (6.6)0.77 (0.18 to 1.33).01
MelbA968.8 (11.6)63.5 (16.7)0.38 (−0.19 to 0.93)
1769.1 (12)65.1 (14.3)0.31 (−0.26 to 0.86)
AHA960.1 (15.3)53.1 (22.2)0.38 (−0.19 to 0.93)
1759.7 (13.5)52.3 (21.4)0.43 (−0.15 to 0.98)
Forced-use therapy
 Sung et al48EDPT1187.6 (1.7)137.1 (1.4)0.37 (−0.36 to 1.08)
Box & Block10.5 (5.7)9.5 (7.1)0.15 (−0.57 to 0.86)
 Eugster-Buesch et al49 (change scores)MelbAPost (NR)121.94 (4.86)11−0.05 (3.74)0.45 (−0.39 to 1.27)
24.4 (4.68)1.95 (3.97)0.56 (−0.29 to 1.38)
121.96 (4.88)1.84 (5.24)0.02 (−0.80 to 0.84)
Other UL interventions
 Gordon et al50Jebsen110339.6 (182.9)10434.9 (230.1)−0.46 (−1.33 to 0.45)
4309.9 (155.7)355.9 (151.3)−0.30 (−1.21 to 0.64)
AHA11.5 (1.8)1.2 (2.1)0.17 (−0.74 to 1.06)
40.95 (1.7)1.8 (2.0)−0.47 (−1.41 to 0.51)
BOTMP (6 BIM items)15.6 (3.6)8.4 (5.2)−0.64 (−1.51 to 0.29)
47.1 (4.7)8.7 (5.6)−0.30 (−1.22 to 0.64)
 Novak et al51 (a)QUEST-T41270.2 (22.4)1226.0 (2.1)1.12 (0.22 to 1.93).01
871.3 (21.4)26.0 (2.1)1.16 (0.26 to 1.98).01
 Novak et al51 (b)QUEST-T41155.4 (30.3)1226.0 (2.1)0.35 (−0.49 to 1.16)
859.7 (26.8)26.0 (2.1)0.53 (−0.32 to 1.34)
 Gygax et al54SHUEE-F3561.7 (30)558.2 (27.5)0.12 (−1.13 to 1.35)
SHUEE-P371 (29.3)68.4 (20.3)0.10 (−1.15 to 1.33)
SHUEE-G388.9 (23.6)80 (28.2)0.34 (−0.94 to 1.56)
  • ABILHAND, ; -amt, amount of use; Besta-G; Besta Scale grasp; Besta-T, Besta Scale total; Besta-Bim; Besta Scale bilateral manipulation; BIM, bimanual training; BOTMP, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency; CFUS, Caregiver Functional Use Survey; DM, dissociated movements domain; EBS, Emerging Behavior Scale; EDPT, Erhardt Developmental Prehension Test; G, grasp domain; Jebsen, Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test; MelbA, Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function; NR, not reported; PAFT, pediatric arm function test; PFMS, Peabody Fine Motor Scales; PFMS-G; Peabody Fine Motor Scale grasp domain; PFMS-VMI; Peabody Fine Motor Scale visual motor integration domain; -qual, quality of use; PMAL-R revised Pediatric Motor Activity Log; PMAL, Pediatric Motor Activity Log; SHUEE-F, Shriner’s Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation–spontaneous functional analysis; SHUEE-G, Shriner’s Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation–grasp and release; SHUEE-P, Shriner’s Hospital for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation–dynamic positional analysis.

  • a Data in Treatment and Control columns are presented as medians (interquartile range) for Speth et al15.

  • b Wallen et al18 (a) BoNT-A and OT versus control.

  • c Wallen et al18 (b) BoNT-A and OT versus OT.

  • d Facchin et al38 (a) mCIMT versus BIM.

  • e Facchin et al38 (b) mCIMT versus control.

  • f Facchin et al38 (c) BIM versus control.

  • g Rostami et al45 (b) mCIMT versus mCIMT and virtual reality.

  • h Rostami et al45 (c) mCIMT versus control.

  • i Rostami et al45 (d) virtual reality versus control.

  • j Xu et al41 (a) mCIMT and FES versus mCIMT.

  • k Xu et al41 (b) mCIMT versus OT.