TABLE 1

Study Characteristics and Methods of RCTs of Nonsurgical Interventions in Children With Congenital Hemiplegia

Study Grouped by InterventionDesignDiagnosisAgeTreatmentnControln
NDT
 Law et al (a)12RCTCP18 mo to 8 yIntense NDT and casting19Intensive NDT18
 Law et al (b)12Regular NDT and casting17Regular NDT18
 Law et al (a)13RCT cross-overCP18 mo to 4 yIntense NDT and casting first26Regular OT24
 Law et al (b)13Intense NDT and casting second26Regular OT24
BoNT-A
 Fehlings et al14SB RCTHemi CP2 to 10 yBoNT-A and OT14OT15
 Speth et al15Matched-pairs RCTHemi CP4 to 16 yBoNT-A and OT/PT10OT/PT10
 Lowe et al16SB RCTHemi CP2 to 8 yBoNT-A and OT21OT21
 Kawamura et al17DB RCTCP30 mo to 12 yLow-dose BoNT-A and OT18High-dose BoNT-A and OT21
 Wallen et al (a)18SB RCTCP2 to 14 yBoNT-A19Control15
 Wallen et al (b)18SB RCTCP2 to 14 yBoNT-A and OT20OT17
 Russo et al19SB RCTHemi CP3 to16 yBoNT-A and OT21OT22
 Olesch et al20SB RCTHemi CP18 mo to 5 yRepeat BoNT-A and OT (3 injections)11OT11
 Kanellopoulos et al21RCTHemi CP2.5 to 12 yBoNT-A, OT and night splint10BoNT-A and OT10
 Rameckers et al24Matched-pairs SB RCTHemi CP4 to16 yBoNT-A and task-oriented training10Task-oriented training10
 Pieber et al22SB RCTHemi CP7 to 17 yFES, OT, and BoNT-A3BoNT-A and OT3
 Elvrum et al23SB RCTCP9 to 17 yBoNT-A and resistance training5BoNT-A5
cCIMT
 Taub et al6RCTCP7 mo to 8 yCIMT9Regular therapy9
 Deluca et al25SB RCT cross-overCP7 mo to 8 yCIMT9Control9
CIMT secondControl
 Taub et al26RCT cross-overHemi CP2 to 6 yCIMT first10Usual care10
CIMT second10Usual care10
 Case-Smith et al27 and Deluca et al28SB RCTHemi CP3 to 6 yCIMT (3 h/d)9CIMT (6 h/d)9
mCIMT
 Charles et al7SB RCTHemi CP4 to 8 ymCIMT11Control11
 Smania et al29RCT cross-overHemi CP1 to 9 ymCIMT first5PT5
mCIMT secondPT
 Al-Oraibi et al30SB RCTHemi CP22 to 105 momCIMT7NDT7
 Lin et al31SB RCTCP4 to 9 ymCIMT10Therapy11
 Sakzewski et al32SB RCTHemi CP5 to 16 ymCIMT32BIM training31
 Wallen et al37SB RCTHemi CP19 mo to 7 ymCIMT25Standard OT25
 Gordon et al58SB RCTHemi CP3 to 10 ymCIMT21HABIT21
 Facchin et al38 and Fedrizzi et al39Cluster RCTHemi CP2 to 8 ymCIMT39BIM training33
mCIMT39Standard care33
BIM training33Standard care33
 Eliasson et al40SB RCT cross-overHemi CP1.5 to 5 yEco mCIMT first12Usual care13
Eco mCIMT second13Usual care12
 Xu et al (a)41SB RCTHemi CP2 to 14 ymCIMT and FES22mCIMT23
 Xu et al (b)41SB RCTHemi CP2 to 14 ymCIMT23OT23
 Hsin et al42SB RCTHemi CP6 to 8 ymCIMT (home)11Standard care11
 Chen et al43SB RCTHemi CP6 to 12 ymCIMT (home)24Standard care23
 Rostami et al (a)44SB RCTHemi CP74 mo (mean)mCIMT (home)7mCIMT (clinic)7
 Rostami et al (b)45SB RCTHemi CP6 to 11 ymCIMT8mCIMT and VR8
 Rostami et al (c)45SB RCTHemi CP6 to 11 ymCIMT8Control8
 Choudhary et al46SB RCTHemi CP3 to 8 ymCIMT16Regular therapy15
 Hoare et al47SB RCTHemi CP18 mo to 6 yBoNT-A and CIMT17BoNT-A and BIM OT17
Hybrid model: combined mCIMT and bimanual training
  de Brito Brandão et al9SB RCTHemi CP4 to 8 ymCIMT and BIM8Regular therapy8
 Aarts et al8SB RCTHemi CP30 mo to 8 ymCIMT-BiT28Regular therapy24
Forced-use therapy
 Sung et al48RCTHemi CP≤8 yForced-use and regular therapy18Regular therapy13
 Eugster-Buesch et al49SB RCTHemi CP6 to 16 yForced use12Control11
Other UL interventions
 Gordon et al50SB RCTHemi CP3 to 15 yHABIT10Control10
 Novak et al (a)51DB RCTCP4 to 12 yOT home program (8 wk)12No OT home program12
 Novak et al (b)51DB RCTCP4 to 12 yOT home program (4 wk)11No OT home program12
 Elliott et al52RCTCP8 to 15 yLycra splint and goal-directed training8Goal-directed training8
 Gygax et al54SB RCT cross-overHemi CP6 to 14 yMirror therapy: BIM with mirror first5BIM without mirror5
BIM without mirror first5BIM with mirror second5
 Law et al53SB cluster RCTCP1 to 5 yChild focused71Context focused57
 Duncan et al55SB RCTCP12 to 72 moIntensive therapy and acupuncture46Intensive therapy29
 Buccino et al56DB RCTCP6 to 11 yAction observation8Control7
 Rostami et al (d)45SB RCTHemi CP6 to 11 yVR8Control8
  • BIM, bimanual training; BiT, bimanual therapy; DB, double-blind; Eco, ecological; Hemi, hemiplegia; FES, functional electrical stimulation; PT, physiotherapy; SB, single blind; VR, virtual reality.