TABLE 1

Mother, Child, and Family Characteristics

CharacteristicHV GroupControl Group
Maternal characteristics
 Age (in years) at childbirth18.69 (SD = 1.28)18.78 (SD = 1.23)
 Race, %
  White34.241.4
  African American (non-Hispanic)20.617.7
  Hispanic38.330.5
  Other (non-Hispanic)6.910.5
 Relationship status, %
  Single34.134.1
  Dating24.726.2
  Committed41.239.7
 Living arrangements, %
  Lives alone with child10.67.4
  Lives with others89.492.6
Child characteristics
 Age (in months) at T212.05 (SD = 5.27)11.75 (SD = 5.65)
 Boy, %52.954.4
 Socioeconomic factors, %
  Mother welfare recipient60.155.3
  Mother employed26.528.7
  Father supports financially59.954.9
 Financial difficulties, %
  No difficulties11.312.6
  Few difficulties25.621.9
  Some difficulties51.547.0
  Major difficulties11.617.7