TABLE 2

Number of Studies, Mean Effect Sizes, and Results of Heterogeneity Analyses According to Outcome Category

VariableMaternal Life Course OutcomesBirth OutcomesParent Behaviors and SkillsChild Cognitive OutcomesChild Physical Health Child Maltreatment
No. of studies in analysis12143224159
Mean effect size (95% CI)0.20 (0.07 to 0.32)*0.061 (–0.08 to 0.20)0.23 (0.13 to 0.33)*0.25 (0.11 to 0.38)*0.11 (0.00 to 0.22)−0.08 (–0.24 to 0.07)
Heterogeneity analysisP < .02P < .0001P < .0001P < .0001P < .0001P < .01
I252%86%75%78%80%65%