TABLE 1

Variables Coded for the Analyses and Definitions

VariableDescription or Definition
Home visiting content/delivery components
 Developmental norms and expectationsInformation on typical child development, developmental milestones, and child behavior
 Developmentally appropriate care and routinesUsing developmentally appropriate behaviors related to satisfying a child’s primary needs (eg, diapering, dressing, bathing)
 Safe or clean home environmentInformation or activities focused on home cleanliness, safety, accident prevention, and first aid
 Stimulating home environmentOrganizing environment to promote development (eg, books)
 Responsiveness, sensitivity to cues, and nurturingProviding developmentally appropriate responses to emotional needs, such as physical contact and affection
 Discipline and behavior managementUsing age-appropriate discipline or management, including discipline-related communication skills
 Promotion of child’s socioemotional developmentFostering children’s positive adjustment and well-being, such as positive self-esteem, adaptability, creativity, and interpersonal comfort
 Promotion of child’s cognitive developmentIncludes using naturally occurring opportunities to promote child language or knowledge by describing aspects of the child’s activity or environment and asking questions
 Public assistanceInformation on obtaining or being directly taught to obtain housing or food assistance (eg, SNAP, WIC, TANF, AFDC, welfare)
 Concrete or instrumental assistanceDirect provision of resources to address basic needs, including transportation services, respite or child care, grocery certificates
 Selecting appropriate alternative caregiversInformation or activities related to finding capable child or respite caregivers
 Parental relationshipsEnhancing parental relationship (eg, communication between parents)
 Parental substance useProviding education or direct services related to substance use
 Parental mental healthAddressing mental health issues or directly providing mental health services
 Prenatal healthInformation or activities to promote prenatal health and behavior (eg, diet, nutrition, prenatal care, fetal development)
 Family planning or birth spacingInformation or activities to promote family planning or birth spacing (eg, optimal intervals, contraception)
 Self-, stress-, or anger-managementProviding services for stress-, anger-, or self-management (eg, self-sufficiency skills, such as time management)
 Support groupDirectly providing a support group
 Social support or social network (need for)Information and activities on the importance of and how to access social support (eg, teaching parents how to identify and access support groups or develop a support network)
 Adult literacy or academic achievementInformation on obtaining GEDs, literacy, or other training or education
 Problem solvingTeaching the use of problem-solving strategies
 Goal settingTeaching parents to engage in goal setting
 Case managementIdentifying and linking families to other services and resources (ie, hands-on assistance with contacting, making appointments, helping with forms or eligibility criteria, advocacy)
 Rehearsal or role-playingUsing rehearsal, practice, or role-playing of techniques or behaviors
 Home visitor is professionalUsing professional home visitors, (eg, nurse, psychologist, social worker)
 Match between home visitor and client: race/ethnicityPurposive matching of home visitor and client on race and/or ethnicity
 Standardized curriculumUsing an established curriculum or curriculum adapted to family needs
 Program delivered in language other than EnglishProgram delivered in language other than English
Research design characteristics
 Random assignmentInvestigators randomly assigned individuals to treatment conditions before the intervention and maintained group assignment in analyses (eg, studies in which intervention-assigned “nonattenders” were analyzed because comparison participants were coded as not using random assignment)
 Assessment of initial equivalenceInvestigators reported assessment of group equivalence at baseline on either demographic or outcome measures
 No-treatment comparison groupComparison group for a given effect size received no alternate treatment or services
 Home visiting tested as a stand-alone interventionIntervention group for a given effect size received only the home visiting program (versus receiving the home visiting program as part of a broader package of interventions)
 Timing of outcome assessmentOutcome was measured at 67% to 90% of treatment implementation versus immediately posttest
Outcome measure categories
 Maternal life courseIndicators of maternal health, economic self-sufficiency, educational attainment, and other life outcomes, such as criminal behavior or subsequent pregnancies and births
 Birth outcomesIndicators of the absence of negative birth outcomes, such as prematurity, low birth weight, or childbirth complications
 Parent behaviors and skillsIndicators of parenting behaviors and practices, such as promoting a safe and stimulating home environment, positive parenting behaviors, well-child visits, and immunizations
 Child cognitive outcomesIndicators of cognitive and language development
 Child physical healthIndicators of positive health outcomes, including the absence of child injury/ingestion, mortality, and illnesses
 Child MaltreatmentIndicators of child maltreatment, including child protective services data and self-report of abusive/harsh parenting practices
  • AFDC, Aid to Families With Dependent Children; GEDs, General Educational Development Tests; SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; TANF, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; WIC, Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.