TABLE 4

Gluten Exposure Under Continued Breastfeeding, With Borderline Overlapping Breastfeeding (Continued ±1 mo After Gluten Introduction) and Absent Breastfeeding at Gluten Introduction, and the Risk for CD (“Umbrella Effect”)

Continued Breastfeeding at Time of Gluten IntroductionAll, n = 45 156CD, n (%), n = 170 (0.38)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)P
Yes26 413118 (0.45)1.22 (0.77–1.95)1.17 (0.74–1.87).50
Borderline: +/− 1 mo overlap12 99331 (0.24)0.65 (0.38–1.14)0.65 (0.37–1.14).13
No575021 (0.37)ReferenceReferenceReference
  • Included in the analysis are only those where gluten had been introduced at or before 6 mo age (n = 45 326).

  • a Adjusted for maternal CD, gender, and age of child.