TABLE 4

Multiple Logistic Regression Results for the Association of Excess Weight in the Second Half of Infancy With Breastfeeding Intensity and Bottle-Emptying Behaviors in the First Half of Infancy (N = 1187)

Risk FactorsAdjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)a
Feeding practices of primary interest over the first half of infancy
    Breastfeeding intensity
        Low (<20%)2.32 (1.40–3.84)
        Medium (20%–80%)2.11 (1.24–3.60)
        High (>80%)Referent
    Frequency of infant-initiated bottle emptying
        Rarely (low tercile)Referent
        Sometimes (midtercile)1.28 (0.80–2.03)
        Often (high tercile)1.69 (1.09–2.63)
    Frequency of maternal encouragement of infant bottle emptying
        Rarely (low tercile)Referent
        Sometimes (midtercile)0.56 (0.37–0.87)
        Often (high tercile)0.49 (0.31–0.77)
Confounding variables
    Infant gender (boy = 0 vs girl = 1)1.73 (1.19–2.51)
    Gestational age at birth (weeks)0.85 (0.73–0.99)
    Age when the last weight was measured (weeks)0.97 (0.95–0.98)
    Birth weight (kg)4.37 (2.81–6.79)
    Age when solid food was first indicated (weeks)0.99 (0.96–1.02)
    Mean No. of sweet drinks over the first half of infancy (feedings per day)1.98 (0.59–6.65)
    Maternal age (years)1.01 (0.97–1.05)
    Parity (primiparous = 0 vs multiparous = 1)1.16 (0.75–1.80)
    Maternal education
        High school graduate or less1.31 (0.75–2.29)
        Some college1.20 (0.77–1.86)
        College graduateReferent
    Race/ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic whiteReferent
        Non-Hispanic black3.26 (1.60–6.65)
        Hispanic2.68 (1.35–5.32)
    Income as a percentage of federal poverty level1.00 (1.00–1.00)
    Maternal BMI before pregnancy1.02 (0.99–1.04)
    Maternal smoking at 3 mo postpartum (cigarettes per day)1.03 (0.98–1.07)
  • a The adjusted odds ratio for each feeding practice was obtained by controlling for other feeding practices as well as all the confounding variables listed.