TABLE 1

Clinical Trials of CBT for Anxiety in Children With High-Functioning ASD

SourceJadad ScoreParticipantsCBT FormatControl ConditionDiagnostic AssessmentAnxiety Outcome MeasureES
Sofronoff et al (2005)1N = 71, 65 boys, age range 10–12 y6 2-h group sessions of CBT with child only or with child and parentWaitlistDiagnosis of Asperger syndrome by pediatrician in communitySCAS-P0.10
Chalfant et al (2007)2N = 47, 35 boys, mean age = 10.8 y, SD = 1.4 y, range 8–13 y12 2-h group sessions using the Cool Kids manual72WaitlistDiagnosis of ASD by pediatrician, psychiatrist, or psychologist in community; ADIS-C/PSCAS-P4.34
SCAS-C2.69
RCMAS3.34
Wood et al (2009)3N = 40, 27 boys, mean age = 9.2 y, SD = 1.5 y, range 7–11 y15 90-min individual sessions using modular format73WaitlistADOS, ADI-R, WISC, ADIS-C/PADIS-C/P Clinical Severity Rating (blinded to treatment assignment)2.53
MASC-P1.23
MASC-C0.03
Sung et al (2011)2N = 70, 66 boys, mean age = 11.2 y, SD = 1.8 y, range 9–16 y16 90-min group sessions using in-house curriculumSocial recreationADOS, WISCSCAS-C0.07
McNally Keehn et al (2012)3N = 22, 21 boys, mean age = 11.3 y, SD = 1.5 y, range 8–14 y16 90-min individual sessions using the Coping Cat manual74WaitlistADOS, ADI-R, WASI, ADIS-PADIS-P Interference Rating (blinded to treatment assignment)1.33
SCAS-P0.95
SCAS-C0.49
Reaven et al (2012)2N = 50, 48 boys mean age = 10.4 y, SD = 1.7 y, range 7–14 y12 90-min group sessions using Face Your Fears curriculum75TAUADOS, WASI, SCAREDADIS-P Clinical Severity Rating (blinded to treatment assignment)0.61
Storch et al (2013)3N = 45, 36 boys, mean age = 8.9 y, SD = 1.3 y, range 7–11 y16 60- to 90-min sessions using the Behavioral Intervention for Anxiety in Children With Autism Program76TAUADOS, ADI-R, ADIS-C/PPARS (blinded to treatment assignment)1.40
ADIS-C/P Clinical Severity Rating (blinded to treatment assignment)0.91
MASC-P0.49
RCMAS0.37
White et al (2013)3N = 30, 23 boys, mean age = 14.6 y, SD = 1.5 y, range 12–17 y13 75- to 90-min sessions of individual CBT plus 7 group sessions of social skills training77WaitlistADOS, ADI-R, WASI, ADIS-C/PPARS (blinded to treatment assignment)0.33
CASI anxiety scale0.38
  • ADI-R, Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised; ADIS-C/P, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule–Child and Parent; ADOS, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; CASI, Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory; MASC-C, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children–Child; MASC-P, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children–Parent; PARS, Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; and RCMAS, Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale; SCAS-C, Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale–Child Report; SCAS-P, Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale–Parent Report; SCARED, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; WASI, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.