TABLE 1

Comparison of Select Depression Survey Tools

TitleAge/GradeNo. ItemsSuicidal Ideation ItemCostAvailabilityEstablished in Diabetes PopulationQualification
CDI7–1727YesPer useProprietaryType 1 diabetes in adolescents [12, 13, 17, 33–36]B
CDI: Short (S)7–1710NoPer useProprietaryB
CDI-27–1728YesPer useProprietaryB
CDI-2: S7–1710NoPer useProprietaryB
Center for Epidemiologic Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D)11–adult20NoFreeBright Futures.orgSearch [37] systematic review reports CES-D used in > 20% of studies of depression screening in patients with diabetes [32]A
Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS)7th–12th grade6YesFreeComparison with Beck’s Depression Inventory [38, 39].A
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) modified for teenagers12–adult13YesFreeTeenscreen.orgPHQ-9 widely used in adults; published as a screener for primary care settings [26, 40-42]. Modified version includes suicidal ideation item.A
  • Level A tools do not require special qualifications. Level B tools require a degree in psychology, counseling, or closely related field plus satisfactory completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics, and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area; or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.