TABLE 1

Selected Characteristics Among Children With Influenza-Associated Death: United States, October 2004 Through September 2012

CharacteristicValue
Male gender442 (53)
Age, median (IQR), y7 (1–12)
 <6 months94 (11)
 6 to 23 months114 (14)
 24 to 59 months117 (14)
 5 to 8 years167 (20)
 9 to 12 years112 (13)
 13 to 17 years226 (27)
Race/ethnicitya
 White373 (45)
 Hispanic or Latino194 (23)
 Black149 (18)
 Asian35 (4)
 American Indian/Alaska Native17 (2)
 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander7 (1)
 Identified by ≥2 races5 (1)
 Unknown50 (6)
High-risk medical conditions (n = 794)b
 No high-risk medical conditions341 (43)
 One or more high-risk medical conditionc453 (57)
  Pulmonary disease206 (26)
   Asthma127 (16)
  Neurologic disorder260 (33)
   Neurodevelopmental disorder212 (27)
    Cerebral palsy78 (10)
   Neuromuscular disorder25 (3)
   Seizure disorder126 (16)
  Chromosome abnormality/genetic syndrome98 (12)
  Congenital heart disease or other cardiac disease87 (11)
  Immunosuppressive condition57 (7)
   Cancer (received chemotherapy or radiation)31 (4)
  Endocrine disorder45 (6)
  Other conditionsd30 (4)
Location of death (n = 823b)
 Admitted to hospital537 (65)
 Emergency department151 (18)
 Outside hospital135 (16)
Duration of illness, median (IQR) (n = 798b), d5 (3–12)
  ≤3 days266 (33)
  ≤7 days500 (63)
One or more bacterial pathogen identified from normally sterile site (n = 387b)154 (40)
 Staphylococcus aureus (n = 154e)76 (49)
  Methicillin-resistant S aureus48 (31)
  Methicillin-sensitive S aureus23 (15)
  Sensitivity testing not performed5 (3)
 Streptococcus pneumoniae22 (14)
Complications during acute illness (n = 769b)
 Pneumonia389 (51)
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome235 (31)
 Seizures83 (11)
 Encephalopathy/encephalitis68 (9)
 Viral coinfection39 (5)
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated; N = 830. IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Hispanic or Latino ethnicity includes persons of any race. Data for other race categories do not include Hispanics.

  • b Information was available on the presence or absence of high-risk conditions for 794 children, on location of death for 823 children, on duration of illness for 798 children, on results of bacterial testing for 387 children who were tested, and on the presence or absence of complications for 769 children.

  • c More than 1 medical condition could be reported for each child.

  • d Other conditions include renal disease (n = 20), hemoglobinopathy (n = 8), and pregnancy (n = 2).

  • e Percentages reported out of 154 children with a bacterial coinfection.