TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children With Stuttering Onset Compared With Nonstuttering Children

VariablenStutterersanNonstutterers
Male gender, %18158.6143849.9
Premature birth (<36 wk), %1813.314382.9
Twin birth, %1816.114382.2
Has older siblings, %18144.2143449.9
Family history1811438
 No problem, %76.874.8
 Speech/language/reading problems only, %14.919.7
 Stuttering problems, %b8.35.5
Birth wt, kg, mean (SD)1793.4 (0.5)14143.4 (0.5)
SEIFA disadvantage score, mean (SD)1811047 (47)14371035 (62)
Mother’s education level1791423
 Did not complete Year 12, %16.223.2
 Completed Year 12, %30.740.3
 Degree/postgraduate, %53.136.5
Maternal mental health score at 2 y, median (IQR)1762 (1, 4)12933 (1, 4)
Temperament score at 2 y, mean (SD)17815.6 (4.6)131115.7 (4.9)
CDI raw vocabulary score at 2 y, mean (SD); median (IQR)179284 (157); 261 (168, 398)1295261 (163); 247 (127, 377)
CDI percentile rank at 2 y, median (interquartile range)17940 (26, 68)129538 (16, 63)
Late talker (score ≤10th percentile on MCDI) at 2 y, %17911.7129519.9
CSBS total standardized score at 2 y, mean (SD)174107.7 (15.2)1273104.4 (14.6)
Language spoken to child—w1 (8 mo) to w4 (36 mo)1811438
 English only, %97.893.2
 Another language, %2.26.8
  • CDI, MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory; CSBS, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales; IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Proportion of participants with stuttering onset by 4 y (cumulative incidence) was 11.2% (95% CI 9.7% to 12.8%).

  • b Children with a family history of stuttering may also have reported family histories of speech/language and/or reading problems.