TABLE 3

Adolescent Last Year Smoking (2011) by Parent- and Child-Level Predictors

VariablePercentage Last Year Smoking95% CI
Parent measuresa
 Currently married*
  No21.915.7–29.6
  Yes12.78.4–18.7
 Education level
  High school or less20.612.8–31.4
  Associate’s or vocational/technical17.611.0–26.9
  Some college16.310.1–25.4
  Bachelor’s degree or higher10.64.5–23.2
 Gender
  Female17.913.5–23.3
  Male11.46.0–20.5
 Currently employed
  No19.011.8–29.2
  Yes16.111.8–21.5
 Smoking trajectori***
  Early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce22.613.3–35.9
  Late-onset persistent smokers28.614.9–47.7
  Early-onset persistent heavy smokers25.015.6–37.5
  Stable nonsmokers8.14.6–13.7
Children measures
 Race
  Non-white16.911.3–24.6
  White–non-Hispanic14.910.4–20.9
 Gender
  Female16.011.3–22.2
  Male16.711.3–23.9
 Close to parent respondent*
  No31.815.9–53.5
  Yes12.69.0–17.3
 Older sibling smoker***
  No14.210.6–18.7
  Yes40.023.0–59.9
Last Year Nonsmokers: Average (95% CI)Last Year Smokers: Average (95% CI)
 Age***14.28 (13.96–14.61)16.92 (16.22–17.61)
 Depressive affect***11.16 (10.59–11.74)13.77 (12.31–15.22)
 Grade point average***3.07 (2.98–3.16)2.40 (2.11–2.69)
 Self-esteem**9.46 (9.27–9.65)8.82 (8.42–9.22)
  • CI, confidence interval.

  • a Parent averages and tests are not adjusted for clustering of siblings within parent.

  • * P < .05;

  • ** P < .01;

  • *** P < .001 (χ2 tests for categorical predictors; 2-tailed t tests for continuous predictors).