TABLE 3

Four-Year-Old Outcomes of Children by Stuttering Status (Stuttering Onset vs Not Stuttering) Compared by t Tests

VariableStutteringNever stutteringMean difference (stuttering minus never-stuttering)
nMean (SD)nMean (SD)Difference95% CIP
CELF-P2
 Core language score161105.0 (13.0)124999.60 (14.6)5.53.1 to 7.8<.001
 Expressive language composite159104.4 (14.0)121999.7 (15.0)4.62.2 to 7.1<.001
 Receptive language composite160103.1 (13.4)124796.5 (14.9)6.64.2 to 9.0<.001
SDQ
 Emotional symptoms scale1651.6 (1.6)12371.4 (1.5)0.2−0.05 to 0.5.11
 Conduct problems scale1651.6 (1.4)12371.6 (1.5)0.03−0.3 to 0.2.84
 Hyperactivity scale1653.3 (2.4)12373.3 (2.2)−0.09−0.4 to 0.3.64
 Peer problems scale1651.2 (1.3)12371.4 (1.5)−0.2−0.4 to 0.1.18
 Prosocial scale1657.2 (2.0)12377.5 (1.8)−0.2−0.5 to 0.1.11
 Total Difficulties scale1657.7 (4.7)12377.8 (4.6)−0.08−0.8 to 0.7.84
Temperament
 Approach/Withdrawal score16420.8 (6.0)123420.1 (6.7)0.7−0.4 to 1.8.19
 Easy-Difficult score16367.9 (12.5)123268.0 (12.7)−0.04−2.1 to 2.0.97
PEDS-QL
 Physical functioning scale16588.0 (10.0)123487.4 (10.6)0.6−1.1 to 2.3.49
 Emotional Functioning16573.4 (13.9)123375.5 (14.5)−2.1−4.5 to 0.2.08
 Social Functioning16591.7 (11.0)123487.2 (12.8)4.52.5 to 6.6<.001
 School/Preschool13093.7 (11.2)98491.0 (13.2)2.70.3 to 5.1.03
 Total scale score16585.9 (8.6)123484.8 (9.5)1.1−0.4 to 2.7.14
K-BIT Matrices subtest Standard Score160106.5 (11.4)1247103.9 (13.7)2.60.4 to 4.8.02
  • CELF-P2, Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals—Preschool, Second Edition; K-BIT, Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; PEDS-QL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.