TABLE 5

Adjusted Odds (95% Confidence Interval) of Language Services Communication Method Use by Pediatrician, Practice, and State Characteristics, 2010

CharacteristicAny Formal InterpreterProfessional InterpreterTelephone InterpreterBilingual PhysicianBilingual StaffBilingual Family MemberWritten Materials
Pediatrician characteristics
 Age, y
  ≤45Referent
  >450.85 (0.57–1.26)1.14 (0.75–1.74)0.86 (0.59–1.26)0.81 (0.56–1.16)1.19 (0.83–1.70)1.57 (1.11–2.23)a1.22 (0.85–1.75)
 Gender
  FemaleReferent
  Male1.51 (1.01–2.24)a1.07 (0.70–1.63)1.03 (0.71–1.51)0.75 (0.52–1.07)0.81 (0.56–1.17)0.72 (0.50–1.02)0.82 (0.58–1.18)
 Latino ethnicity
  NoReferent
  Yes0.18 (0.07–0.45)a0.28 (0.10–0.75)a0.25 (0.10–0.67)a6.17 (2.38–16.0)a0.29 (0.13–0.65)a0.40 (0.19–0.84)a0.80 (0.38–1.69)
Practice characteristics
 Setting
Hospital/clinic/medical schoolReferent
 Solo/2-physician practice0.14 (0.07–0.28)a0.23 (0.11–0.47)a0.11 (0.05–0.25)a1.44 (0.76–2.69)1.29 (0.69–2.43)2.57 (1.37–4.81)a0.92 (0.51–1.66)
 Pediatric group, 3–10 pediatricians0.13 (0.08–0.21)a0.13 (0.08–0.23)a0.21 (0.13–0.35)a1.15 (0.73–1.84)1.58 (0.98–2.53)1.91 (1.23–2.96)a0.55 (0.35–0.87)
 Pediatric group, >10; Multispecialty group, HMO0.40 (0.23–0.68)a0.46 (0.26–0.81)a0.64 (0.39–1.07)0.91 (0.54–1.55)1.42 (0.84–2.41)2.01 (1.23–3.27)a0.59 (0.36–0.99)a
 Location
  SuburbanReferent
  Inner city2.39 (1.35–4.25)a3.49 (1.97–6.20)a1.42 (0.83–2.42)1.48 (0.89–2.48)1.03 (0.61–1.74)0.96 (0.59–1.56)0.83 (0.50–1.36)
  Urban area (non–inner city)1.48 (0.91–2.39)2.58 (1.54–4.33)a0.91 (0.57–1.47)0.91 (0.58–1.44)0.82 (0.53–1.30)0.75 (0.49–1.15)0.67 (0.43–1.05)
  Rural0.95 (0.47–1.91)1.26 (0.59–2.71)0.69 (0.33–1.49)1.11 (0.57–2.17)0.71 (0.36–1.39)1.72 (0.87–3.39)0.72 (0.37–1.40)
 Publicly insured patients
  LowReferent
  High1.44 (0.91–2.27)1.67 (1.04–2.70)a0.87 (0.55–1.37)0.98 (0.64–1.50)1.38 (0.90–2.13)0.70 (0.46–1.05)1.21 (0.80–1.84)
 Latino patients
  LowReferent
  High0.60 (0.37–0.97)a0.66 (0.40–1.10)0.91 (0.58–1.43)2.34 (1.54–3.56)a2.49 (1.64–3.77)a1.26 (0.84–1.88)1.82 (1.21–2.74)a
State characteristics
 LEP population
  LowReferent
  High0.59 (0.37–0.96)a0.37 (0.16–0.85)a1.41 (0.73–2.70)1.60 (0.92–2.77)5.09 (3.28–7.91)a1.64 (1.08–2.51)a1.10 (0.68–1.77)
 Latino population growth
  LowReferent
  High1.64 (0.92–2.92)1.28 (0.53–3.12)2.52 (1.24–5.12)a1.53 (0.83–2.82)2.06 (1.25–3.37)a2.04 (1.25–3.32)a1.50 (0.89–2.53)
 Medicaid/CHIP reimbursement
  NoReferent
  Yes2.34 (1.24–4.40)a1.44 (0.57–3.61)1.43 (0.70–2.96)0.80 (0.41–1.57)1.21 (0.69–2.13)1.69 (0.98–2.92)1.86 (1.05–3.30)a
  • HMO, health maintenance organization.

  • a P < .05 for all bolded values.