TABLE 1

Controls and Cases of Moderate-Severe BPD in Discovery GWAS

CharacteristicsControls (n = 827)Cases (n = 899)Odds Ratio (n = 1726)
n (%)n (%)OR (95% CI)
Maternal age, y
 <1838 (4.6)41 (4.6)1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 18–2091 (11.0)115 (12.8)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 21–25165 (20.0)208 (23.1)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
 26–30202 (24.4)199 (22.1)ref
 31–35191 (23.1)196 (21.8)1.0 (0.8–1.4)
 36–40117 (14.1)114 (12.7)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 >4023 (2.8)26 (2.9)1.1 (0.6–2.1)
Maternal race/ethnicity (self-reported)
 African American117 (14.1)108 (12.0)0.7 (0.5–1.0)
 Hispanic448 (54.2)460 (51.2)0.8 (0.7–1.0)
 Asian/Pacific Islander74 (8.9)93 (10.3)1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 Other14 (1.7)22 (2.4)1.3 (0.6–2.5)
 Caucasian174 (21.0)216 (24.0)ref
Mother’s years of education
 <12241 (30.7)291 (34.3)1.1 (0.8–1.4)
 High school graduate or GED215 (27.4)239 (28.2)ref
 >12330 (42.0)318 (37.5)0.9 (0.7–1.1)
Gender
 Male405 (49.0)495 (55.1)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 Female422 (51.0)404 (44.9)ref
Gestational age, wk
 25(0/7)–25(6/7)136 (16.4)255 (28.4)3.3 (2.3–4.7)
 26(0/7)–26(6/7)187 (22.6)234 (26.0)2.2 (1.6–3.1)
 27(0/7)–27(6/7)203 (24.5)188 (20.9)1.6 (1.1–2.3)
 28(0/7)–28(6/7)168 (20.3)146 (16.2)1.5 (1.1–2.2)
 29(0/7)–29(6/7)133 (16.1)76 (8.5)ref
Birth weight, g
 150–4995 (0.6)15 (1.7)5.4 (1.9–15.0)
 500–74999 (12.0)224 (24.9)4.1 (3.0–5.4)
 750–1000345 (41.7)449 (49.9)2.3 (1.9–2.9)
 1001–1499378 (45.7)211 (23.5)ref
IUGR
 Yes50 (6.3)72 (8.4)1.4 (0.9–2.0)
 No744 (93.7)783 (91.6)ref
SGA
 SGA69 (8.3)142 (15.8)2.1 (1.5–2.8)
 NGA758 (91.7)757 (84.2)ref
Surfactant given in the delivery room
 Yes281 (34.1)353 (39.4)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
 No544 (65.9)544 (60.7)ref
Surfactant given at any time
 Yes746 (90.2)846 (94.2)1.8 (1.2–2.5)
 No81 (9.8)52 (5.8)ref
Early bacterial sepsis and/or meningitis (≤ day 3)
 Yes27 (3.3)29 (3.2)1.0 (0.6–1.7)
 No799 (96.7)869 (96.8)ref
Late sepsis and/or meningitis (> day 3)
 Yes94 (11.4)192 (21.4)2.1 (1.6–2.8)
 No732 (88.6)706 (78.6)ref
Grade IVH
 0550 (67.3)543 (61.0)ref
 1121 (14.8)160 (18.0)1.3 (1.0–1.7)
 272 (8.8)84 (9.4)1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 342 (5.1)55 (6.2)1.3 (0.9–2.0)
 432 (3.9)48 (5.4)1.5 (0.96–2.4)
Grade ROP
 0412 (53.0)296 (33.7)ref
 1155 (19.9)173 (19.7)1.6 (1.2–2.0)
 2135 (17.4)234 (26.7)2.4 (1.9–3.1)
 375 (9.6)170 (19.4)3.2 (2.4–4.4)
 41 (0.1)5 (0.6)6.9 (0.8–59.9)
Pneumothorax
 Yes26 (3.1)45 (5.0)1.6 (0.99–2.7)
 No801 (96.9)854 (95.0)ref
PDA severity
 No PDA282 (40.3)231 (28.4)ref
 Treated only with indomethacin331 (47.3)344 (42.3)1.3 (1.0–1.6)
 Treated with indomethacin, then surgery53 (7.6)149 (18.3)3.4 (2.4–4.9)
 Direct to surgery34 (4.9)89 (10.9)3.2 (2.1–4.9)
Postnatal steroids given for CLD
 Yes44 (5.4)196 (22.0)5.0 (3.5–7.0)
 No777 (94.6)769 (78.0)ref
  • CI, confidence interval; CLD, chronic lung disease; GED, General Education Development; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; NGA, normal for GA; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus; ref, reference group for ORs; ROP, retinopathy of prematurity; SGA, small for GA.