TABLE 2

Prevalence and aORs for the Relationship Between ACEs and the Age of Initiation of Alcohol Use (N = 3592)

Category of ACEs% (n)Age of Initiation of Alcohol Use, aOR (95% CI), ya
≤1415–1718–20≥21
Emotional abuse14.8 (500)1.6 (1.0–2.6)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.0 (referent)
    Did a parent or other adult in the household…
        Often or very often swear at you, insult you, or put you down?
        Sometimes, often, or very often act in a way that made you afraid that you might be physically hurt?
Physical abuse13.7 (448)2.0 (1.2–3.2)1.2 (0.8–1.7)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.0 (referent)
    Did a parent or other adult in the household…
        Sometimes, often, or very often push, grab, slap, or throw something at you?
        Ever hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured?
Sexual abuse19.1 (689)3.2 (2.1–4.9)1.7 (1.2–2.4)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.0 (referent)
    Did a parent or other adult in the household…
        Touch or fondle you in a sexual way?
        Have you touch their body in a sexual way?
        Attempt oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?
        Actually have oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?
Emotional neglect3.7 (123)2.3 (1.0–5.4)1.1 (0.5–2.2)0.5 (0.3–1.1)1.0 (referent)
    There was someone in my family who helped me feel important or special
    I felt loved
    People in my family looked out for each other
    People in my family felt close to each other
    My family was a source of strength and support
Physical neglect7.7 (241)1.1 (0.6–2.1)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.6 (0.4–1.0)1.0 (referent)
    I didn't have enough to eat
    I knew there was someone there to take care of me
    My parents were too drunk or high to take care of me
    I had to wear dirty clothes
    There was someone to take me to the doctor if I needed it
Battered mother17.9 (583)1.4 (0.9–2.2)1.3 (0.9–1.8)0.8 (0.5–1.1)1.0 (referent)
    Was your mother (or stepmother)…
        Sometimes, often, or very often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her?
        Sometimes, often, or very often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard?
        Ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes?
        Ever threatened with or hurt by a knife or gun?
Parental discord/divorce41.3 (1376)1.7 (1.2–2.5)1.3 (1.0–1.8)0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.0 (referent)
    Were your parents ever separated or divorced?
Mentally ill household member24.8 (906)2.0 (1.3–3.0)1.4 (1.0–1.8)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (referent)
    Was a household member depressed or mentally ill?
    Did a household member attempt suicide?
Substance abuse in home28.7 (992)2.0 (1.4–3.1)1.6 (1.2–2.2)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.0 (referent)
    Did you live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic?
    Did you live with anyone who used street drugs?
Incarcerated household member8.7 (244)1.7 (0.9–3.3)1.6 (0.9–2.7)0.8 (0.4–1.4)1.0 (referent)
    Did a household member go to prison?
  • a ORs were adjusted for age, gender, race, educational attainment, family feelings about alcohol, and number of friends drinking first year of high school.