TABLE 1

BLLs and Fall PALS-K Total Test Score by Study Population Characteristics

N%GM BLL, Median (IQR), µg/dLMean (SD) Fall PALS-K Total Test Score
Study population characteristics
 Entire group34061004.2 (2.9–6.0)41.2 (24.0)
 BLL categories
  <5 µg/dL209161.53.1 (2.2–4.0)42.9 (23.9)
  5–9 µg/dL1098326.3 (5.5–7.5)39.5 (23.9)
  ≥10 µg/dL2176.511.7(10.8–14.2)33.8 (23.3)
Individual demographic characteristics
 Gender
  Female1679494.2 (2.9–6.0)42.5 (23.7)
  Male1727514.2 (2.8–6.0)40.1 (24.2)
 Age at start of kindergarten
  <5 years, 3 months901264.2 (2.9–6.0)37.1 (22.6)
  5 years, 3 months, to <5 years, 6 months881264.0 (2.7–5.5)39.7 (23.7)
  5 years, 6 months, to <5 years, 9 months888264.2 (2.8–6.0)43.7 (23.6)
  ≥5 years, 9 months736244.6 (3.1–6.6)45.4 (25.2)
 Race
  White442134.2 (2.7–6.0)50.3 (25.1)
  Black707215.0 (3.2–7.0)46.9 (23.0)
  Hispanic2021594.0 (2.7–5.6)37.3 (23.0)
  Othera23674.5 (3.0–6.5)41.1 (24.2)
 Child language
  English2074614.3 (3.0–6.1)46.0 (24.0)
  Spanish1219364.0 (2.7–5.5)33.9 (21.9)
  Otherb9835.0 (3.5–8.0)32.1 (21.9)
  Missing15<13.9 (2.4–6.6)43.3 (21.3)
 Birthplace
  Rhode Island2796824.2 (2.9–6.0)42.0 (23.8)
  Other US state424124.0 (2.7–6.0)39.1 (24.9)
  Central/South America10033.9 (2.9–5.7)31.2 (21.1)
  Other country5726.3 (3.6–9.9)38.4 (23.9)
  Missing2914.0 (2.7–5.7)44.1 (22.7)
School characteristics
 Kindergarten year
  2004–2005870264.0 (2.7–6.0)37.9 (22.5)
  2005–20061272374.2 (2.9–6.0)42.1 (24.3)
  2006–20071264374.3 (2.9–6.1)42.7 (24.4)
 Kindergarten program
  Dual language11533.9 (2.9–5.7)36.2 (17.9)
  English as a second language568174.2 (2.9–6.2)25.2 (17.6)
  Regular2723804.2 (2.8–6.0)44.8 (23.9)
 Reading First school
  Yes891264.2 (2.9–6.0)40.9 (24.7)
  No2515744.2 (2.9–6.0)41.4 (24.4)
SES
 Free/reduced/pay lunch status
  Free2713804.3 (3.0–6.1)39.3 (23.4)
  Reduced357103.8 (2.5–5.2)45.5 (24.5)
  Pay336103.9 (2.3–5.6)52.2 (24.5)
Birth data
 Birth weight category
  <1500 g4214.0 (2.8–6.0)37.4 (21.4)
  1500–2499 g17554.6 (2.8–6.0)43.6 (25.8)
  ≥2500 g2479734.2 (2.9–6.0)41.9 (23.7)
  Missing710214.0 (2.8–6.0)38.7 (24.4)
 Gestational age
  <34 weeks6624.1 (3.0–5.7)38.3 (23.4)
  34–36 weeks20064.5 (3.0–6.2)43.5 (25.3)
  ≥37 weeks2430714.2 (2.9–6.0)41.9 (23.7)
  Missing710214.0 (2.8–6.0)38.7 (24.4)
 Maternal high school education
  No1164344.6 (3.1–6.5)35.6 (22.3)
  Yes1437424.0 (2.7–5.8)46.8 (23.9)
  Missing805244.0 (2.7–6.0)39.4 (24.2)
 Public insurance at birth
  No608183.9 (2.5–5.5)48.3 (23.6)
  Yes2088614.4 (3.0–6.2)40.1 (23.5)
  Missing710214.0 (2.8–6.0)38.7 (24.4)
 Parents married at child’s birth
  Yes731213.8 (2.5–5.4)46.0 (24.2)
  No1965584.5 (3.0–6.2)40.4 (23.5)
  Missing710214.0 (2.8–6.0)38.7 (24.4)
  • N = 3406. IQR, interquartile range.

  • a Asians comprise 92% of “other.”

  • b Asian languages comprise 80% of “other.”