TABLE 2

Mean Difference (95% CI) in Fall PALS-K Scores by BLL

Group Size, nModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Below Fall BMAbove Fall BM
GM BLL categories11932213
 0–4 µg/dL66814230.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)
 5–9 µg/dL415683−3.4 (−5.2 to −1.7)−3.8 (−5.5 to −2.1)−4.9 (−6.6 to −3.2)−4.8 (−6.5 to −3.1)−4.5 (−6.2 to −2.9)
 ≥10 µg/dL110107−9.1 (−12.5 to −5.8)−9.9 (−13.2 to −6.6)−11.7 (−15.0 to −8.5)−11.1 (−14.3 to −7.9)−10.1 (−13.3 to −7.0)
P trend<.001<.001<.001<.001<.001
 r20.01090.03800.09040.11500.1345
Refined GM BLL categoriesa11932213
 1 µg/dL832130.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)0.00 (Reference)
 2 µg/dL197416−2.6 (−5.9 to 0.8)−2.1 (−5.4 to 1.2)−2.4 (−5.6 to 0.8)−2.8 (−5.9 to 0.4)−2.7 (−5.8 to 0.5)
 3 µg/dL209409−3.8 (−7.1 to −0.5)−3.6 (−6.8 to −0.3)−3.8 (−7.0 to −0.7)−4.1 (−7.3 to −1.0)−3.3 (−6.5 to −0.2)
 4 µg/dL179385−2.7 (−6.0 to 0.7)−2.6 (−5.9 to 0.7)−3.2 (−6.4 to 0.04)*−3.6 (−6.8 to −0.4)−2.7 (−4.9 to 4.7)
 5 µg/dL148272−4.4 (−7.9 to −0.8)−4.6 (−8.1 to −1.1)−5.6 (−9.0 to −2.2)−5.6 (−9.0 to −2.3)−5.0 (−8.4 to −1.7)
 6 µg/dL130193−6.7 (−10.5 to −3.0)−6.7 (−10.4 to −3.0)−8.4 (−12.1 to −4.8)−9.0 (−12.6 to −5.4)−8.1 (−11.7 to −4.5)
 7 µg/dL5691−6.4 (−11.1 to −1.6)−7.2 (−11.9 to −2.6)−8.9 (−13.5 to −4.4)−9.3 (−13.8 to −4.9)−8.2 (−12.7 to −3.8)
 8 µg/dL5579−8.5 (−13.3 to −3.6)−8.5 (−13.3 to −3.7)−10.0 (−14.7 to −5.3)−10.3 (−14.9 to −5.6)−9.3 (−13.9 to −4.7)
 9 µg/dL2648−7.1 (−13.1 to −1.0)−6.8 (−12.8 to −0.8)−8.0 (−13.9 to −2.2)−7.9 (−13.7 to −2.2)−7.0 (−12.7 to −1.3)
 ≥10 µg/dL110107−11.7 (−15.9 to −7.5)−12.3 (−16.4 to −8.1)−14.5 (−18.5 to −10.4)−14.1(−18.1 to −10.1)−12.7 (−16.6 to −8.7)
 P trend<.001<.001<.001<.001<.001
 r20.01350.04020.09330.11870.1372
Log2 GM BLL doubling model, per twofold increase11932213−3.2 (−4.2 to −2.3)−3.5 (−4.4 to −2.5)−4.1 (−5.0 to −3.1)−4.0 (−4.9 to −3.0)−3.5 (−4.4 to −2.6)
 P<.001<.001<.001<.001<.001
 r20.01290.03940.09110.11650.1343
  • N = 3406. Model 1 was unadjusted; model 2 was adjusted for age at start of kindergarten, gender, and year; model 3 was additionally adjusted for race; model 4 was additionally adjusted for child language; model 5 was additionally adjusted for free/reduced lunch status. BM, benchmark.

  • a Refined GM BLL categories: 1 µg/dL = 0.7–1.99; 2 µg/dL = 2.0–2.99; 3 µg/dL = 3.0–3.99; 4 µg/dL = 4.0–4.99; 5 µg/dL = 5.0–5.99; 6 µg/dL = 6.0–6.99; 7 µg/dL = 7.0–7.99; 8 µg/dL = 8.0–8.99; 9 µg/dL = 9.0–9.99.

  • * P = .053.