TABLE 2

Description of Puberty Timing Studies for US Girls

StudyYears Data CollectedGeographic Region; SESRace/Ethnicity of Participants Included in AnalysisStudy Type; Interval AssessedNo. of ParticipantsMarkers Assessed (Method)Age Range, ya
Fels Study; Reynolds and Wines13 (1948)1940sYellow Springs, OH; mid-upper SESNR but known to be 100% whiteL; 6 mo (birthday and half birthday)49Menarche, breast and pubic hair staging6 (photos)8-18
Guidance Study; Nicolson and Hanley14 (1953)1930s—1940sBerkeley, CA: high educational levelNR but known to be 100% whiteL; 6 mo95Menarche, breast and pubic hair staging7 (photos)8-17
NHES I, II, and III;
MacMahon63 (19 73)
1960-1970Nationally representative; mixed SES5635 white; 1043 black; 32 other6CS1:3581; II and III6: 2242Menarche1:18-79; II and III6: 11-14
NHES cycle III
Harlan etal62 (1980)f1966-1970Nationally representative; mixed SES2688 white; 500 blackCS7514Breast and pubic hair Tanner staging (visual examination)12-17
Lee17 (1980)1969-1974Baltimore, MD; upper middle SES94% white; 6% black and AsianL; 6 mo18Menarche and breast (palpation) and pubic hairTanner staging (visual examination)8,6-17,8
Bogalusa Heart Study
Foster etal61 (1977)g1973-1974Bogalusa, LA; low-average SES1059 white6; 621 blackCS1680Menarche, breast and pubic hairTanner staging (visual examination)5-14
Freedman et al4 (2002)1973-1994Bogalusa, LA; low-average SES61 % white6; 39% blackML/CS9158Menarche7-16,9
Wattigneyetal93 (1999)'1978-1979;
1992-1994
Bogalusa, LA; low-average SES78-79:332 white6; 238 black 92-94:348 white6; 305 blackML/CS78-79:570 92-94:653Menarche8-17
HHANES; Villarreal et al64 (1989)1982-1984Mexican Americans from the Southwest100% Mexican American'CS699Breast and pubic hair Tanner staging (visual examination)10-17
PROS; Herman-Giddens et al5 (1997)1992-1993Volunteer physician practices in United States (34 states and Puerto Rico); NR904% white; 9.6% blackCS17 077Menarche, breast and pubic hairTanner staging (visual examination for all; palpation for subset' )3-12
NHANES III
Wu et al47 (2002)1988-1994Nationally representative; mixed SES466 white; 589 black; 568 Mexican American (Tanner stages); 330 white; 419 black; 419 Mexican American (menarche)'CS1623 (Tanner stages); 1168 (menarche)Menarche, pubic and breast development Tanner staging (visual examination)8-16 (Tanner stages); 10-16 (menarche)
StudyYears Data CollectedGeographic Region; SESRace/Ethnicity of Participants Included in AnalysisStudy Type; Interval AssessedNo. of ParticipantsMarkers Assessed (Method)Age Range, ya
Sun et al45 (2002)1988-1994Nationally representative; mixed SES594 white; 788 black; 763 Mexican AmericanCS2145Breast and pubic hair development Tanner staging (visual examination)8-18
Chumlea etal46 (2003)1988-1994Nationally representative; mixed SES710 white; 917 black; 883 Mexican AmericanCS2510Menarche8-19
NHES ll/lll; NHANES III; Anderson etal3 (2003)1963-1965 (NHES II); 1966-1970 (NHES III); 1988-1994 (NHANES)Nationally representative; mixed SESWhite, black, other; NHES
II and III6:77.8% white; NHANES III: 86,0% white1
CS3272 NHES ll/lll™ and 1326 NHANES IIIMenarche10-15
NHES III; HHANES; NHANES1966-1970(NHESNationally representative;NHES III: white (83.9%);CS3130 NHES III; 712Breast and pubic hair12-17 (NHES III-
III; Sun etal65 (2005)III); 1982-1984 (HHANES); 1988-1994 (NHANES III)mixed SES (NHES and NHANES); Hispanic (HHANES)black; HHANES: 100% Mexican American; NHANES III: white (23.9%); black; Mexican AmericanHHANES; 1218 NHANES IIIdevelopment Tanner staging (visual examination)NHANES III comparison); 10-17 (HHANES-NHANES III comparison)
  • L indicates longitudinal; CS, cross-sectional; ML/CS, mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional components or overlapping panel design; NR, not reported by authors.

  • a Years described in whole numbers indicate the range from the beginning of the first age to the end of the second age (eg, 3-12 is 3.0 years to 12.99 years of age).

  • b Reynolds and Wines13 used a 5-stage rating system for breast and pubic hair development that had similar definitions to Tanner staging.

  • c Nicolson and Hanley14 used a 4-stage system for breast development. They defined stage 2 as onset (similar to Tanner stage 2), stage 3 as similar to Tanner stage 3, and stage 4 as similar to Tanner stage 5. A 5-stage system similar to Tanner staging was used for pubic hair development.

  • d Hispanic white was included in white; Hispanic black was included in black.

  • e Data from NHES cycles II and III were combined, and the age range was limited to 11 to 14 years.

  • f Data from Harlan etal62 are not included because neither means nor medians were reported.

  • g Foster et al61 analyzed 1 CS data set.

  • h White was defined as nonblack.

  • i The analysis of Wattigney etal93 grouped ages as 8 to 11 (“early”), 12 to 13 (“intermediate”), or 14 to 17 (“late”) years of age. Data from this study are not presented in Table 3 because of lack of comparisons with other studies.

  • j Mexican Americans from the Southwest United States from HHANES were included.

  • k Data for breast staging using palpation were reported by Kaplowitz and Oberfield.18

  • l Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.

  • m Anderson etal3 combined data from NHES cycles II and III and limited the age range to 10 to 15 years.