TABLE 3

Univariate Associations Between BFHI Status and Breastfeeding Rates and Practices

All n = 6752%Non-BFHI, %, n = 5295BFHI, %, n = 1457Unadjusted OR (95%CI)
Breastfeeding initiation
 No3.93.84.11
 Yes96.196.295.90.92 (0.69–1.24)
Any BF at 1 mo
 No16.015.218.91
 Yes84.084.881.10.77 (0.66–0.90)**
Exclusive BF at 1 mo
 No46.547.642.41
 Yes53.552.457.61.24 (1.10–1.39)***
Any BF at 4 mo
 No33.532.637.11
 Yes66.567.462.90.82 (0.73–0.93)**
Exclusive BF at 4 mo
 No68.668.568.91
 Yes31.431.531.10.98 (0.87–1.11)
First contact skin-to-skina
 No27.229.121.01
 Yes72.270.979.01.54 (1.34–1.78)***
First feed within 60 mina
 No20.922.117.31
 Yes78.377.982.71.36 (1.17–1.59)***
Rooming-in all the timea
 No20.822.216.21
 Yes78.877.883.81.47 (1.25–1.72)***
Formula in hospitala
 Yes22.124.214.81
 No77.575.885.21.84 (1.57–2.16)***
Infant-friendly practicesa
 04.14.82.01
 17.78.55.31.52 (0.95–2.43)
 213.013.711.51.65 (1.24–2.2)**
 324.025.122.01.45 (1.18–1.79)***
 449.347.859.21.88 (1.61–2.19)***
  • Reference category is non-BFHI. BF, breastfeeding; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio. ** P < .01. *** P < .001.

  • a Analysis conducted on participants who initiated breastfeeding.