TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of the Participating Children and Differences Between Children With and Without Problems Identified by the SDQ (n = 839)

CharacteristicTotal n (%)Elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score [n (%)]Elevated SDQ Impairment Score [n (%)]
Gender
 Boy428 (51.0)66 (15.4)24 (5.6)
 Girl411 (49.0)50 (12.2)25 (6.1)
Child’s age
 3 y (range 31–41 mo; mean, 36.4; SD, 1.1)506 (61.2)77 (15.2)27 (5.3)
 4 y (range 42–52 mo; mean, 46.5; SD, 1.6)321 (38.8)37 (11.5)21 (6.5)
Ethnicity
 Dutch692 (85.4)86 (12.4)39 (5.6)
 Former colony22 (2.7)4 (18.2)0 (0.0)
 Labor migrant32 (4.0)8 (25.0)1 (3.1)
 Other nonindustrialized country49 (6.0)12 (24.5)4 (8.2)
 Other industrialized18 (1.9)2 (13.3)2 (13.3)
Family composition
 Two parents766 (96.0)103 (13.4)42 (5.5)
 One parent32 (4.0)6 (18.2)3 (9.1)
Employment status
 Unemployed10 (1.3)4 (40.0)0 (0.0)
 One full-time job165 (21.3)36 (21.8)14 (8.5)
 One full-time + 1 part-time job505 (65.2)53 (10.5)22 (4.4)
 Both part-time65 (8.4)7 (10.8)3 (4.6)
 Both full-time30 (3.9)4 (13.3)3 (10.0)
Parental educational level
 Lower education100 (12.3)28 (28.0)8 (8.0)
 Medium education321 (39.6)48 (15.0)19 (5.9)
 Higher education389 (48.0)36 (9.3)20 (5.1)
Number of siblings
 No siblings206 (24.6)34 (16.5)10 (4.9)
 One sibling441 (52.6)63 (14.3)33(7.5)
 Two or more siblings192 (22.9)19 (9.9)6 (3.1)
Maternal age (y)
 21–30176 (21.1)42 (23.9)16 (9.1)
 31–35336 (40.3)44 (13.1)19 (5.7)
 36–40257 (30.8)18 (7.0)10 (3.9)
 >4065 (7.8)9 (13.8)3 (4.6)
Paternal age (y)
 21–3083 (10.1)23 (27.7)11 (13.3)
 31–35241 (29.5)35 (14.5)10 (4.1)
 36–40325 (39.7)32 (9.8)17 (5.2)
 >40169 (20.7)21 (12.4)9 (5.3)
Total839 (100)116 (13.8)49 (5.8)
  • Missing: gender (n = 0), child’s age (n = 12), ethnicity (n = 29), family composition (n = 41), employment status (n = 64), parental educational level (n = 29), number of siblings (n = 0), maternal age (n = 5), and paternal age (n = 21).