TABLE 3

Bivariate Models of Maternal and Infant Predictors of TV Viewing Across the 3- to 18-Month Visits

Any TVaTV GroupbInactive TV PlacementcTV on During Mealsd
Maternal characteristics
 Education, high school graduate or greater1.31 (0.58, 2.99)0.95 (0.59, 1.52)0.97 ( 0.63, 1.49)0.35 (0.16, 0.75)
 Single1.12 (0.36, 3.50)0.91 (0.46, 1.80)0.87 (0.48, 1.58)1.97 (0.67, 5.68)
 Obese1.30 (0.61, 2.75)1.52 (1.02, 2.29)1.11 (0.77, 1.62)1.22 (0.62, 2.39)
 Has depressive symptoms0.64 (0.36, 1.22)0.96 (0.66, 1.39)1.18 (0.76, 1.84)1.14 (0.68, 1.94)
 Currently working0.70 (0.43, 1.46)1.08 (0.76, 1.54)1.07 (0.72, 1.59)1.05 (0.65, 1.69)
 Daily TV viewing (hours)1.27 (1.12, 1.44)1.24 (1.14, 1.35)1.01 (0.49, 1.07)1.19 (1.09, 1.29)
Infant characteristics
 TV in infant’s bedroom1.00 (0.45, 2.24)1.30 (0.80, 2.11)0.91 (0.54, 1.53)0.57 (0.33, 0.99)
 Currently breastfeeding0.87 (0.37, 2.04)0.66 (0.41, 1.06)0.73 (0.37, 1.42)0.78 (0.42, 1.33)
 Activity1.42 (0.97, 2.09)1.42 (1.12, 1.79)0.85 (0.65, 1.10)1.35 (1.06, 1.72)
 Fussinesse1.27 (0.79, 2.03)1.29 (0.99, 1.69)1.07, 0.77, 1.51)1.28 (0.98, 1.65)
 Daily crying duration (hours)1.23 (1.02, 1.47)1.10 (1.01, 1.19)1.14 (1.00, 1.30)0.98 (0.86, 1.12)
  • Data are presented as odds ratios (95% confidence interval).

  • a Represents odds of having ≥1 h of TV exposure in longitudinal logistic models, adjusted for infant gender and visit.

  • b Represents effect of a 1-unit increase in predictor on the odds of higher TV exposure group (0–<1 h of TV, 1–3 h of TV, or >3 h of TV per day) in ordinal regression models, adjusted for infant gender and visit. SEs were adjusted to control for clustering by subject.

  • c Inactive TV placement modeled after 6 mo only. Represents odds of being placed in a device limiting movement controlling for infant gender and visit.

  • d Represents odds of having >half of meals with the TV on (vs. half or fewer meals) in longitudinal logistic models, adjusted for infant gender and visit.

  • e Fussiness measured only at ages 3–9 mo.