TABLE 1

Summary and Characteristics of Common Cell Therapies

Stem Cell TypeSourceEvidence in Lung RepairAdvantagesDisadvantages
Embryonic SCsExcess human embryos from IVFGenerate type I and II AECs in vitro29,32; ESC-derived AEC IIs rescue bleomycin-induced lung injury in vivo34; and pulmonary hypoplasia in vitro35TotipotentTumorigenic; Ethical restrictions; Limited source; Require expansion
Bone marrow SCsBone MarrowGenerate type II AECs in vivo41; Rescue hyperoxia-induced injury in neonatal mouse lung41Pluripotent; Antiinflammatory; Track record in preclinical and clinical studiesTumorigenic; Risk of chimerism; Invasive collection; Require expansion
Umbilical cord SCsCord Blood; Wharton’s JellyGenerate type II AECs in vitro57; Rescue hyperoxia-induced injury in neonatal rat lung in vivo57; Rescue bleomycin-induced lung injury in vivo55Multipotent; Antiinflammatory;, Easily accessible; Track record in preclinical and clinical studiesLimited yield; Require expansion
Amniotic fluid SCsAmniotic fluidGenerate type II AECs in vivo,58 Pro-angiogenic60Multipotent; Antiinflammatory; Low antigenicityInvasive collection (amniocentesis); Require expansion
Amniotic membrane SCsMembrane stroma; Membrane epitheliumFavor adipogenic, neurogenic, vasculogenic, and hepatic potentials50,6264PluripotentVariable engraftment rate
Generate type I and II AECs in vitro69,70; Rescue bleomycin-induced adult lung injury83 and fetal lung injury induced by ventilation84 and LPS85 in vivoNontumorigenic; Antiinflammatory; Low antigenicity; Easily accessible; High yield of viable cells; Track record in preclinical and clinical studies