TABLE 2

Baseline Characteristics in Relation to Initiation of Smoking by Wave 3

Characteristicn (N = 2255)Proportion Smoked by Wave 3, %RR (95% CI)
Gender
    Male11298.0Reference
    Female112611.31.41 (1.13–1.77)
Race
    White17129.0Reference
    Other54311.61.29 (0.98–1.70)
Age
    9 y4524.4Reference
    10 y8657.11.59 (1.06–2.41)
    11 y71612.22.75 (1.67–4.52)
    12 y22222.14.99 (3.10–8.04)
School performance
    Excellent9246.0Reference
    Good95710.21.72 (1.34–2.21)
    Average/below average36317.42.92 (2.24–3.80)
Any friend smokes
    No20917.9Reference
    Yes16431.74.02 (2.97–5.43)
Sensation-seeking
    First quartile6023.5Reference
    Second quartile5656.91.98 (1.21–3.25)
    Third quartile69012.63.61 (2.24–5.84)
    Fourth quartile39817.65.04 (3.34–7.61)
Rebelliousness
    First quartile6985.3Reference
    Second quartile4605.91.11 (0.76–1.62)
    Third quartile5459.41.77 (1.26–2.47)
    Fourth quartile55218.53.49 (2.60–4.67)
Self-regulation
    First quartile63913.02.25 (1.64–3.07)
    Second quartile78910.51.82 (1.23–2.69)
    Third quartile3776.61.15 (0.76–1.74)
    Fourth quartile4505.8Reference
Self-esteem
    First quartile59116.63.26 (1.95–5.45)
    Second quartile5428.91.74 (1.08–2.80)
    Third quartile6707.21.41 (0.85–2.33)
    Fourth quartile4525.1Reference
Either parent smokes
    No15086.3Reference
    Yes70316.42.60 (2.03–3.33)
Parent education
    Bachelor's degree or more6874.5Reference
    Some college84610.42.31 (1.58–3.37)
    High school diploma or less67013.63.01 (2.02–4.49)
Maternal responsiveness
    First quartile67312.91.69 (1.30–2.19)
    Second quartile6039.11.19 (0.81–1.76)
    Third and fourth quartilea9797.7Reference
Maternal monitoring
    First quartile64514.32.58 (1.73–3.86)
    Second quartile51110.21.84 (1.30–2.62)
    Third quartile5747.71.39 (0.92–2.08)
    Fourth quartile5255.5Reference
  • RRs were unadjusted.

  • a The highest value was attained in the third quartile.