Characteristics of Included Studies

YearData Collection Time FrameSample SizeMethodologyLocationRetro/ProspectiveCaregiver StatusDemographicsEthnicity/ Race (0–9)aVaccine Type
Bair et al35b20082004–200540InterviewsIndianapolis, IndianaProspectiveMothersUrban, mostly foreign-born6HPV
Benin et al36b20062002–200333InterviewsNew Haven, ConnecticutCombinationMothersUrban and suburban9: 5, 3, 6Multiple
Bond et al231998Not specified45InterviewsMelbourne, AustraliaRetrospectiveMothers (fathers participated in 6 interviews)Targeted high and low education levels and SES0Multiple
Casiday et al4020062004996SurveyDurham, United KingdomRetrospective93.6% mothers, 6.1% fathers, 0.3% otherVaried SES but higher than general population0MMR
Casiday2420072002–200487Focus groups, interviewsCambridge and Durham, United KingdomCombination88.5% mothers, 11.5% fathersVaried SES0MMR
Cassell et al4120062004452SurveyBrighton, United KingdomRetrospectiveMothersUnclear0MMR
Downs et al252008Not specified30InterviewsMissouri, Pennsylvania, and Oregon, United StatesRetrospective87% mothers, 13% fathersVaried SES, majority college educated9: 5, 3, 1Multiple
Evans et al262001200148Focus groupsAvon and Gloucestershire, United KingdomRetrospective89.5% mothers, 10.5% fathersVaried SES0MMR
Gazmararian et al322010200654Focus groupsAtlanta, GeorgiaCombinationMothersVaried SES9: 5, 3, 6, 2Influenza
Gellatly et al51b20052003–2004110SurveyEdinburgh, United KingdomRetrospectiveParentsVaried SES0MMR
Kennedy et al42200820086 focus group participants, 12 household surveysFocus groups, surveyIndianaRetrospectiveChurch leaders, parentsWell educated0Multiple
Kilmartin et al4319981994–1995242SurveyTasmania, AustraliaCombinationPostpartum mothersVaried SES0Multiple
Leask et al272006Not specified37Focus groupsSydney, AustraliaProspectiveMothersVaried SES0Multiple
Marshall et al4420052004686SurveySouth AustraliaRetrospective56.3% women, 43.7% menVaried SES0Varicella
Mays et al282004200034InterviewsIndianapolis, IndianaProspective85.3% women, 14.7% menUrban and suburban9: 5, 3STI vaccines: HPV, hypothetical GC, HIV, HSV
Moran et al37b2008200366 focus groupsFocus groupsEuropeCombinationGeneral populationVaried SES0Multiple
Niederhauser et al4520011998262SurveyHawaiiRetrospective87% mothers, 11% fathers, 2% grandmothersVaried SES9: 2, 4, 5Varicella
Noakes et al29200620056 focus groupsFocus groupsUnited KingdomCombinationParentsVaried SES0HPV
Olshen et al3020052003–200425Focus groups, interviewsBoston, MassachusettsCombination88% mothers, 12% fathersVaried SES9: 5, 3, 6HPV
Reiter et al5020102009406SurveyUnited StatesProspectiveMothersVaried SES9: 5, 3, 6HPV
Skea et al3120082000–2003132Analysis of online chat forumUnited KingdomCombination133 users, presumed mostly womenPresumed higher SES0MMR
Shui et al38b2005200353Focus groupsAtlanta, GeorgiaCombinationMothersVaried SES3Multiple
Tarrant et al39b2008Not specified15InterviewsHong KongRetrospective93.3% mothers, 6.7% fathersHigher SES0Multiple
Tickner et al3320072005–200622InterviewsSouthern EnglandCombination95.5% mothers, 4.5% fathersVaried SES5DTaP/IPV/Hib
Tickner et al3420102006–200719InterviewsSouthern EnglandRetrospectiveMothers (fathers participated in 2 interviews)Varied SES9: 5, 3DTaP/IPV, MMR
Wallace et al4620062004–2005158SurveyAustralia and New Zealand (some international respondents)ProspectiveNot reportedNot reported0MMR
Watts et al4720092007–2008246SurveyBoston, MassachusettsProspectiveMothersVaried SES9: Latina versus non-LatinaHPV
Wroe et al482004Not specified195SurveyAuckland, New ZealandProspectivePre- and postpartum mothersHigher SES9: 5, 2, 4Multiple
Wu et al4920072003228SurveyNew Haven, ConnecticutProspectivePostpartum mothersHigher SES9: 5, 6, 3Multiple
  • DTaP, diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis; GC, Neisseria gonorrheae; Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IPV, inactivated poliovirus vaccine; Multiple, multiple vaccine types; SES, socioeconomic status; STI, sexually transmitted infection.

  • a 0, not reported/unclear; 1, American Indian or Alaska Native; 2, Asian; 3, black or African-American; 4, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; 5, white; 6, Hispanic/Latino(a); and 9, multiple races.

  • b Social responsibility articles.