TABLE 4

Parenting Outcomes Over Time

OutcomeAdjusted OR (95% CI)
2–4 mo, Total30–33 mo, Total5–5.5 y
TotalRandomizationQuasi-experimental
Parental response to misbehavior
    Ever slap in face/spank with object0.73 (0.55–0.97)0.68 (0.54–0.86)0.85 (0.60–1.22)0.57 (0.54–0.86)
    Use harsh discipline0.78 (0.62–0.99)0.98 (0.74–1.30)0.78 (0.48–1.26)1.12 (0.78–1.60)
    Often/almost always negotiate1.16 (1.01–1.34)1.20 (1.03–1.39)1.25 (0.99–1.56)1.16 (0.95–1.42)
    Often/almost always ignore misbehavior1.38 (1.10–1.73)1.24 (0.97–1.59)1.07 (0.73–1.58)1.32 (0.95–1.84)
Child's behavior
    Clinical or borderline concern regarding child's     behaviora1.26 (1.01–1.57)1.35 (1.10–1.64)1.26 (0.94–1.69)1.48 (1.12–1.95)
Promotion of child development
    Followed routinesb1.00 (0.88–1.13)1.03 (0.88–1.20)1.02 (0.82–1.26)0.76 (0.55–1.06)1.24 (0.93–1.67)
    Showed/looked at or read picture booksc1.22 (1.07–1.40)0.96 (0.82–1.12)1.16 (1.00–1.35)1.07 (0.85–1.35)1.22 (1.00–1.48)
Experiences seeking care
    Discussed topicsd2.41 (2.10–2.75)10.36 (8.51–12.6)1.33 (1.13–1.56)1.24 (0.98–1.58)1.42 (1.14–1.78)
    Received anticipatory guidance and parenting education accounting for preferences1.33 (1.13–1.57)1.28 (1.01–1.64)1.38 (1.11–1.73)
    Agreed that pediatrician/nurse practitioner     provided supporte2.33 (1.82–3.03)2.70 (2.17–3.45)1.25 (1.02–1.53)1.13 (0.83–1.54)1.31 (1.00–1.73)
    Remained at practice1.66 (1.47–1.87)1.19 (1.01–1.39)1.10 (0.86–1.41)1.30 (1.05–1.61)
    Used emergency department in past year for injury0.77 (0.61–0.97)1.00 (0.83–1.20)0.96 (0.73–1.27)1.01 (0.79–1.30)
    Hospitalized in past year1.14 (0.84–1.54)0.90 (0.57–1.42)0.96 (0.51–1.79)0.84 (0.43–1.66)
  • a Any clinical or borderline concern regarding the child's behavior, assessed by using the following Child Behavior Checklist syndrome scales: anxious/depressed, sleep problems, and aggressive behavior (30–33 months) or emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, sleep problems, and attention problems (5–5.5 years).

  • b Followed ≥2 routines (2–4 months), followed 3 routines (30–33 months), or regular bedtime (5–5.5 years).

  • c Showed picture books ≥1 time daily (2–4 months), read or showed picture books every day or more (30–33 months), or looked at or read books in past week (5–5.5 years).

  • d Discussed 5 of 6 topics (2–4 months), discussed ≥7 of 10 topics (30–33 months), or discussed ≥4 of 6 topics (5–5.5 years).

  • e Suggested things parent could do for child that fit into family's daily life (2–4 and 30–33 months), helped get needed information about child's growth and development, helped get services for child from other agencies and programs, gave advice on how to solve problems at home with child, gave new ideas about things to do with child, and encouraged parents to ask questions about child's growth and development (5–5.5 years), pointed out what parents do well (2–4 months and 30–33 months), acted like parents understand information (2–4 months), and made parents feel like they are doing a good job (2–4 months).