TABLE 3

Parenting Outcomes at 5 to 5.5 Years

OutcomeTotalRandomizationQuasi-experimentalP
All (N = 3165)Intervention (N = 1724)Control (N = 1441)PIntervention (N = 676)Control (N = 632)PIntervention (N = 1048)Control (N = 809)
Parental response to misbehavior, % (n)
    Ever slap in face/spank with object11.9 (369)10.1 (170)14.1 (199)<.00111.2 (74)12.7 (79).409.3 (96)15.1 (120)<.001
    Use harsh discipline7.3 (225)7.5 (120)7.3 (105).735.3 (35)6.5 (40).398.3 (85)8.2 (65).97
    Often/almost always negotiate58.2 (1803)59.8 (1008)56.3 (795).0558.9 (389)54.3 (337).0960.3 (619)57.8 (458).29
    Often/almost always ignore misbehavior9.5 (294)10.3 (174)8.5 (120).089.4 (62)8.9 (55).7510.9 (112)8.2 (65).05
Child's behavior, development, and social skills
    Clinical/borderline concern regarding child's behavior (CBCL), % (n)16.6 (508)18.1 (303)14.8 (205).0120.2 (132)16.5 (100).0916.8 (171)13.4 (105).05
    Significant concern regarding child's development (PEDS), % (n)21.8 (691)21.6 (373)22.1 (318).7720.4 (138)21.7 (137).4822.4 (235)22.4 (181).98
    Child's social skills (SSRS), mean ± SD56.1 ± 9.656.3 ± 9.556.0 ± 9.8.4055.9 ± 9.855.2 ± 10.0.2356.5 ± 9.256.6 ± 9.4.93
Promotion of child development and safety, % (n)
    Routine/regular bedtime86.9 (2720)87.7 (1497)86.0 (1223).1685.1 (570)87.7 (547).1889.4 (927)84.7 (676)<.01
    Looked at/read books in past week56.8 (1780)59.4 (1016)53.6 (764)<.00159.3 (398)56.7 (354).3559.4 (618)51.2 (410)<.001
    Seat belt without booster most of time45.0 (1409)43.0 (734)47.4 (675).0142.3 (282)44.6 (278).3743.6 (452)49.6 (397).01
    Always wears bike helmet56.6 (1590)57.1 (872)55.9 (718).5056.6 (333)57.0 (322).6358.1 (539)55.0 (396).20
Experiences seeking care, % (n)
    Discussed 4 of 6 topics46.4 (1340)48.7 (763)43.8 (577)<.0153.7 (335)48.9 (278).1045.4 (428)39.9 (299).02
    Received anticipatory guidance and parenting education accounting for preferences52.3 (1494)54.9 (852)49.2 (642)<.0159.3 (366)53.7 (302).0551.9 (486)45.8 (340).01
    Agreed that pediatrician/nurse practitioner provided support80.6 (2284)82.0 (1262)79.0 (1022).0482.5 (498)80.3 (464).3381.7 (764)77.9 (558).06
    Remained at practice63.4 (1800)65.1 (1066)61.4 (794).0467.1 (433)64.8 (390).3863.6 (573)58.4 (404).03
    Used emergency department in past year for injury9.7 (297)9.6 (161)9.8 (136).909.2 (60)10.0 (61).619.9 (101)9.6 (75).81
    Hospitalized in past year3.0 (92)3.2 (45)2.8 (47).503.2 (21)3.5 (21).812.6 (26)3.1 (24).51
  • CBCL indicates Child Behavior Checklist; PEDS, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status; SSRS, Social Skills Rating System.