TABLE 2

Baseline Sample Characteristics Among Respondents to the 5- to 5.5-Year Interview1

Characteristic% (n)
TotalRandomizationQuasi-experimental
All (N = 3165)Intervention (N = 1724)Control (N = 1441)PIntervention (N = 676)Control (N = 632)PIntervention (N = 1048)Control (N = 809)P
Mother's age, y.10.80.01
    <209.6 (303)9.4 (162)9.8 (141)11.8 (80)10.8 (68)7.9 (82)9.1 (73)
    20–2948.4 (1529)46.9 (806)50.2 (723)49.7 (336)49.7 (314)45.1 (470)50.7 (409)
    ≥3042.0 (1326)43.7 (751)39.9 (575)38.5 (260)39.6 (250)47.1 (491)40.3 (325)
Mother's education<.001.99<.001
    ≤11 y11.0 (348)9.8 (167)12.6 (181)12.0 (81)11.6 (73)8.2 (86)13.4 (108)
    High school graduate24.7 (779)23.8 (407)25.8 (372)27.6 (186)27.1 (171)21.3 (221)24.9 (201)
    Some college or vocational school29.8 (939)29.0 (496)30.8 (443)30.7 (207)31.3 (198)27.8 (289)30.3 (245)
    College graduate34.5 (1087)37.5 (643)30.8 (444)29.8 (201)30.1 (190)42.6 (442)31.4 (254)
Mother's race<.001.40<.001
    White64.8 (2030)67.5 (1150)61.1 (880)68.5 (456)67.3 (421)66.9 (694)57.0 (459)
    Black21.1 (662)20.3 (345)22.0 (317)21.2 (141)19.5 (122)19.7 (204)24.2 (195)
    Asian/Native American4.5 (140)4.6 (78)4.3 (962)4.1 (27)4.8 (30)4.9 (51)4.0 (32)
    Other9.6 (302)7.6 (130)11.9 (172)6.3 (42)8.5 (53)8.5 (88)14.8 (119)
Mother's ethnicity, Hispanic16.3 (515)14.1 (243)18.9 (272)<.00114.8 (100)17.9 (113).1313.7 (143)19.7 (159)<.001
Live birth order, first45.7 (1446)46.8 (806)44.4 (640).1946.6 (315)43.5 (275).2646.9 (491)45.1 (365).46
Child's insurance, Medicaid33.1 (987)32.2 (527)34.3 (460).2237.6 (243)33.5 (198).1328.6 (284)34.9 (262).01
Child's birth weight <2500 g6.4 (199)6.8 (115)5.9 (84).338.0 (53)6.6 (41).356.0 (62)5.4 (43).57
Income at baseline<.001.22<.001
    Low (less than $20 000)24.8 (740)21.9 (358)28.4 (382)29.1 (188)27.9 (165)17.1 (170)28.7 (217)
    Middle36.4 (1085)35.4 (579)37.6 (506)35.8 (231)40.4 (239)35.1 (348)35.3 (267)
    High (at least $50 000)38.9 (1160)42.8 (701)34.1 (459)35.1 (227)31.6 (187)47.8 (474)36.0 (272)
Owned home59.8 (1782)60.6 (992)58.7 (790).2860.6 (390)63.6 (376).2760.7 (602)54.8 (414).01
Child's age at interview, mo.36.01.83
    615.4 (170)6.0 (104)4.6 (66)7.0 (47)3.2 (20)5.4 (57)5.7 (46)
    6258.4 (1849)58.9 (1015)57.8 (834)56.1 (379)54.0 (341)60.7 (636)60.9 (493)
    6318.8 (594)18.4 (317)19.2 (277)17.5 (118)22.3 (141)19.0 (199)16.8 (136)
    649.3 (293)9.2 (158)9.4 (135)10.4 (70)9.3 (59)8.4 (88)9.4 (76)
    656.6 (209)6.1 (105)7.2 (104)6.8 (46)8.4 (53)5.6 (59)6.3 (51)
    661.6 (50)1.5 (25)1.7 (25)2.4 (16)2.9 (18)0.9 (9)0.9 (7)
  • Data for up to 2% of respondents may be missing for the variables, except insurance (6%), income (6%), and owned own home (6%). Valid percentages reported.